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malaria infection

A Longitudinal Cohort to Monitor Malaria Infection Incidence during Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia

July 6, 2020 - 17:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bennett A, Porter TR, Eisele TP, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul 2

Rigorous evidence of effectiveness is needed to determine where and when to apply mass drug administration (MDA) or focal MDA (fMDA) as part of a malaria elimination strategy. The Zambia National Malaria Elimination Centre recently completed a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province to evaluate MDA and fMDA for transmission reduction. To assess the role of MDA and fMDA on infection incidence, we enrolled a longitudinal cohort for an 18-month period of data collection including monthly malaria parasite infection detection based on polymerase chain reaction and compared time to first infection and cumulative infection incidence outcomes across study arms using Cox proportional hazards and negative binomial models.

Malaria infection, disease and mortality among children and adults on the coast of Kenya

June 22, 2020 - 16:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alice Kamau, Grace Mtanje, Robert W. Snow, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:210, 17 June 2020

Malaria transmission has recently fallen in many parts of Africa, but systematic descriptions of infection and disease across all age groups are rare. Here, an epidemiological investigation of parasite prevalence, the incidence of fevers associated with infection, severe hospitalized disease and mortality among children older than 6 months and adults on the Kenyan coast is presented.

Risk Factors for Malaria Infection and Seropositivity in the Elimination Area of Grand'Anse, Haiti: A Case-Control Study among Febrile Individuals Seeking Treatment at Public Health Facilities

May 29, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashton RA, Joseph V, Eisele TP, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 26.

The island of Hispaniola aims to eliminate malaria by 2025; however, there are limited data to describe epidemiologic risk factors for malaria in this setting. A prospective case–control study was conducted at four health facilities in southwest Haiti, aiming to describe factors influencing the risk of current and past malaria infection. Cases were defined as individuals attending facilities with current or recent fever and positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), whereas controls were those with current or recent fever and RDT negative.

Experimental determination of the force of malaria infection reveals a non-linear relationship to mosquito sporozoite loads

May 27, 2020 - 10:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aleshnick M, Ganusov VV, Nasir G, Yenokyan G, Sinnis P
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 16(5): e1008181

Plasmodium sporozoites are the infective stage of the malaria parasite. Though this is a bottleneck for the parasite, the quantitative dynamics of transmission, from mosquito inoculation of sporozoites to patent blood-stage infection in the mammalian host, are poorly understood. Here we utilize a rodent model to determine the probability of malaria infection after infectious mosquito bite, and consider the impact of mosquito parasite load, blood-meal acquisition, probe-time, and probe location, on infection probability.

Variation of preventive practices and its association with malaria infection in eastern Indonesia: Findings from community-based survey

May 12, 2020 - 17:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ipa M, Widawati M, Laksono AD, Kusrini I, Dhewantara PW
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(5): e0232909

Geographical variation may likely influence the effectiveness of prevention efforts for malaria across Indonesia, in addition to factors at the individual level, household level, and contextual factors. This study aimed to describe preventive practices at individual and a household levels applied by rural communities in five provinces in eastern Indonesia and its association with the incidence of malaria among adult (≥15 years) populations.

NOT Open Access | Inhibition of EIF-5A prevents apoptosis in human cardiomyocytes after malaria infection

May 6, 2020 - 16:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaiser A, Heiss K, Mueller AK, Fimmers R, Matthes J, Njuguna JT
Reference: 
Amino Acids. 2020 May 4.

In this study, a determination of Troponin I and creatine kinase activity in whole-blood samples in a cohort of 100 small infants in the age of 2–5 years from Uganda with complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria suggests the prevalence of cardiac symptoms in comparison to non-infected, healthy patients. Troponin I and creatine kinase activity increased during infection. Different reports showed that complicated malaria coincides with hypoxia in children.

A randomized clinical trial to compare P. falciparum gametocytaemia and infectivity following blood-stage or mosquito bite induced controlled malaria infection

April 6, 2020 - 15:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alkema M, Reuling IJ, Bousema T, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 2. pii: jiaa157

For malaria elimination efforts it is important to better understand parasite transmission to mosquitoes and develop models for early-clinical evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions.

Not Open Access | Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles protect against hepatic injury induced by murine blood-stage malaria infection

March 18, 2020 - 14:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dkhil MA, Abdel-Gaber R, Alojayri G, Al-Shaebi EM, Qasem MAA, Murshed M, Mares MM, El-Matbouli M, Al-Quraishy S
Reference: 
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Mar 11

Biosynthesized nanoparticles proposed to have antiplasmodial activities have attracted increasing attention for malaria that considered being one of the foremost hazardous diseases. In this study, Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy.

The effectiveness of older insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria infection in an area of moderate pyrethroid resistance: results from a cohort study in Malawi

January 20, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monica P. Shah, Laura C. Steinhardt, Dyson Mwandama, Themba Mzilahowa, John E. Gimnig, Andy Bauleni, Jacklyn Wong, Ryan Wiegand, Don P. Mathanga and Kim A. Lindblade
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:24, 15 January 2020

A previous cohort study in Malawi showed that users of new insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) were significantly protected against malaria compared to non-users, despite moderate levels of pyrethroid resistance among the primary mosquito vectors. The present study investigated whether ITNs that were 1–2 years old continued to protect users in the same area with moderate pyrethroid resistance.

A novel murine model for assessing fetal and birth outcomes following transgestational maternal malaria infection

January 15, 2020 - 09:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Morffy Smith CD, Russ BN, Andrew AK, Cooper CA, Moore JM
Reference: 
Scientific Reports, 2019 Dec 20; 9(1):19566

Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is a major cause of severe maternal illness and neonatal mortality. Mouse models are important for the study of gestational malaria pathogenesis. When infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS in early gestation, several inbred mouse strains abort at midgestation. We report here that outbred Swiss Webster mice infected with P. chabaudi chabaudi AS in early gestation carry their pregnancies to term despite high parasite burden and malarial hemozoin accumulation in the placenta at midgestation, with the latter associated with induction of heme oxygenase 1 expression.

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