Rigorous evidence of effectiveness is needed to determine where and when to apply mass drug administration (MDA) or focal MDA (fMDA) as part of a malaria elimination strategy. The Zambia National Malaria Elimination Centre recently completed a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province to evaluate MDA and fMDA for transmission reduction. To assess the role of MDA and fMDA on infection incidence, we enrolled a longitudinal cohort for an 18-month period of data collection including monthly malaria parasite infection detection based on polymerase chain reaction and compared time to first infection and cumulative infection incidence outcomes across study arms using Cox proportional hazards and negative binomial models.
Malaria transmission has recently fallen in many parts of Africa, but systematic descriptions of infection and disease across all age groups are rare. Here, an epidemiological investigation of parasite prevalence, the incidence of fevers associated with infection, severe hospitalized disease and mortality among children older than 6 months and adults on the Kenyan coast is presented.
The island of Hispaniola aims to eliminate malaria by 2025; however, there are limited data to describe epidemiologic risk factors for malaria in this setting. A prospective case–control study was conducted at four health facilities in southwest Haiti, aiming to describe factors influencing the risk of current and past malaria infection. Cases were defined as individuals attending facilities with current or recent fever and positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), whereas controls were those with current or recent fever and RDT negative.
Plasmodium sporozoites are the infective stage of the malaria parasite. Though this is a bottleneck for the parasite, the quantitative dynamics of transmission, from mosquito inoculation of sporozoites to patent blood-stage infection in the mammalian host, are poorly understood. Here we utilize a rodent model to determine the probability of malaria infection after infectious mosquito bite, and consider the impact of mosquito parasite load, blood-meal acquisition, probe-time, and probe location, on infection probability.
Geographical variation may likely influence the effectiveness of prevention efforts for malaria across Indonesia, in addition to factors at the individual level, household level, and contextual factors. This study aimed to describe preventive practices at individual and a household levels applied by rural communities in five provinces in eastern Indonesia and its association with the incidence of malaria among adult (≥15 years) populations.
In this study, a determination of Troponin I and creatine kinase activity in whole-blood samples in a cohort of 100 small infants in the age of 2–5 years from Uganda with complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria suggests the prevalence of cardiac symptoms in comparison to non-infected, healthy patients. Troponin I and creatine kinase activity increased during infection. Different reports showed that complicated malaria coincides with hypoxia in children.
For malaria elimination efforts it is important to better understand parasite transmission to mosquitoes and develop models for early-clinical evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions.
Biosynthesized nanoparticles proposed to have antiplasmodial activities have attracted increasing attention for malaria that considered being one of the foremost hazardous diseases. In this study, Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy.
A previous cohort study in Malawi showed that users of new insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) were significantly protected against malaria compared to non-users, despite moderate levels of pyrethroid resistance among the primary mosquito vectors. The present study investigated whether ITNs that were 1–2 years old continued to protect users in the same area with moderate pyrethroid resistance.
Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is a major cause of severe maternal illness and neonatal mortality. Mouse models are important for the study of gestational malaria pathogenesis. When infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS in early gestation, several inbred mouse strains abort at midgestation. We report here that outbred Swiss Webster mice infected with P. chabaudi chabaudi AS in early gestation carry their pregnancies to term despite high parasite burden and malarial hemozoin accumulation in the placenta at midgestation, with the latter associated with induction of heme oxygenase 1 expression.