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Anopheles gambiae

Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait in combination with long-lasting insecticidal net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Mbé, central Côte d’Ivoire

January 14, 2020 - 09:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joanna E. C. Furnival-Adams, Soromane Camara, Mark Rowland, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Welbeck A. Oumbouke and Raphael N’Guessan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:11, 7 January 2020

Indoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) has potential as a supplementary vector-control and resistance-management tool, offering an alternative mode of insecticide delivery to current core vector-control interventions, with potential to deliver novel insecticides. Given the high long-lasting insecticidal bed net (LLIN) coverage across Africa, it is crucial that the efficacy of indoor ATSB in combination with LLINs is established before it is considered for wider use in public health.

Bacterial communities associated with the midgut microbiota of wild Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso

January 7, 2020 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoure AA, Sare AR, Yameogo F, Somda Z, Massart S, Badolo A, Francis F
Reference: 
Molecular Biology Reports January 2020, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 211–224

Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l) species complex and is responsible for severe forms of malaria. The composition of the mosquitoes’ microbiota plays a role in P. falciparum transmission, so we studied midgut bacterial communities of An. gambiae s.l from Burkina Faso. DNA was extracted from 17 pools of midgut of mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex from six localities in three climatic areas, including cotton-growing and cotton-free localities to include potential differences in insecticide selection pressure.

Functional genetic validation of key genes conferring insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

December 10, 2019 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adolfi A, Poulton B, Anthousi A, Macilwee S, Ranson H, Lycett GJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 4. pii: 201914633

Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.

An odorant receptor from Anopheles gambiae that demonstrates enantioselectivity to the plant volatile, linalool

November 30, 2019 - 04:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huff RM, Pitts RJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2019 Nov 21;14(11):e0225637

Insects express chemical receptors within sensory neurons that are activated by specific cues in the environment, thereby influencing the acquisition of critical resources. A significant gap in our current understanding of insect chemical ecology is defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie sensitivity to plant-emitted volatiles.  

NOT Open Access | A Malaria Transmission Model Predicts Holoendemic, Hyperendemic, and Hypoendemic Transmission Patterns Under Varied Seasonal Vector Dynamics

November 27, 2019 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ratti V, Wallace DI
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz186

A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.

Not Open Access | Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hyeogsun Kwon and Ryan C. Smith
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14119-14128

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens.

High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic

May 28, 2019 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sulaiman S. Ibrahim, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Helen Irving, Rabiou Labbo, Michael O. Kusimo, Izamné Mahamadou and Charles S. Wondji
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:181, 24 May 2019

Information on insecticide resistance and the mechanisms driving it in the major malaria vectors is grossly lacking in Niger Republic, thus hindering control efforts. To facilitate evidence-based malaria control, the role of Anopheles coluzzii population from southern Niger, in malaria transmission, its insecticides resistance profile and the molecular mechanisms driving the resistance were characterized.

Country: 

The current distribution and characterization of the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene in three malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis) in Benin (West Africa)

May 24, 2019 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Come Z. Koukpo, Arsène Jacques Y. H. Fassinou, Michel Sezonlin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:175, 21 May 2019

The fight against malaria faces various biological obstacles, including the resistance of parasites to anti-malarial drugs and the resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used to impregnate mosquito nets, is known in Benin; the expansion of this resistance is influenced by the existence of gene flow between species, otherwise by the presence or absence of the kdr mutation in them. The objective of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of An. gambiae and the level of expression of the pyrethroid resistance kdr gene in seven agro-ecological zones of Benin.

Country: 

Comparing the new Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test with WHO cone and tunnel tests for bioefficacy and non-inferiority testing of insecticide-treated nets

May 3, 2019 - 17:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dennis J. Massue, Lena M. Lorenz, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:153, 30 April 2019

Background

Insecticide-treated net (ITN) durability, measured through physical integrity and bioefficacy, must be accurately assessed in order to plan the timely replacement of worn out nets and guide procurement of longer-lasting, cost-effective nets. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance advises that new intervention class ITNs be assessed 3 years after distribution, in experimental huts. In order to obtain information on whole-net efficacy cost-effectively and with adequate replication, a new bioassay, the Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test (I-ACT), a semi-field whole net assay baited with human host, was compared to established WHO durability testing methods.

Medical Treatment: 

Introgression between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii in Burkina Faso and its associations with kdr resistance and Plasmodium infection

April 14, 2019 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mark J. Hanemaaijer, Hannah Higgins, Ipek Eralp, Youki Yamasaki, Norbert Becker, Oscar D. Kirstein, Gregory C. Lanzaro and Yoosook Lee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:127, 11 April 2019

This paper is the first report providing divergence island SNP genotypes for natural population of Burkina Faso and corresponding Plasmodium infection rates.

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