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Anopheles gambiae

NOT Open Access | Heterogeneous Expression of the Ammonium Transporter AgAmt in Chemosensory Appendages of the Malaria Vector, Anopheles gambiae

March 9, 2020 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ye Z, Liu F, Sun H, Barker M, Pitts RJ, Zwiebel LJ
Reference: 
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 29 February 2020, 103360

Ammonia is one of the principal kairomones originating from human and other animal emanations and in that context, plays an essential role in the host-seeking behaviors of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nevertheless, despite its importance in directing host-seeking, the mechanisms underlying ammonia detection in the mosquito olfactory system remains largely unknown.

NOT Open Access | Proteomic Investigation on Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso Related to Insecticide Pressures from Different Climatic Regions

March 3, 2020 - 14:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoure AA, Serteyn L, Somda Z, Badolo A, Francis F
Reference: 
Proteomics. 2020 Feb 27:e1900400

In Sub‐Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) largely contributes to malaria transmission, in direct relation to environmental conditions influencing the vector ecology. Therefore, we carried out a proteomic analysis on An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes to compare their metabolic state, depending on different pesticide pressures by selecting areas with or without cotton crops, in two climatic regions. Adult mosquitoes were collected, and the proteomes were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS).

Consequences of larval competition and exposure to permethrin for the development of the rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

March 3, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hauser G, Thiévent K, Koella JC
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors, 2020 Feb 27;13(1):107

Mosquitoes and other vectors are often exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Larvae can be exposed to the run-off of agricultural use, and adults can be irritated by insecticides used against them and move away before they have picked up a lethal dose. This sublethal exposure may affect the success of control of insect-borne diseases, for it may affect the competence of insects to transmit parasites, in particular if the insects are undernourished.

Member species of the Anopheles gambiae complex can be misidentified as Anopheles leesoni

February 25, 2020 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yael Dahan-Moss, Allison Hendershot, Minishca Dhoogra, Henry Julius, Jacek Zawada, Maria Kaiser, Neil F. Lobo, Basil D. Brooke and Lizette L. Koekemoer
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:89, 24 February 2020

Accurate Anopheles species identification is key for effective malaria vector control. Identification primarily depends on morphological analysis of field samples as well as molecular species-specific identifications. During an intra-laboratory assessment (proficiency testing) of the Anopheles funestus group multiplex PCR assay, it was noted that Anopheles arabiensis can be misidentified as Anopheles leesoni, a zoophilic member of the An. funestus group. The aim of this project was, therefore, to ascertain whether other members of the Anopheles gambiae complex can also be misidentified as An. leesoni when using the standard An. funestus multiplex PCR.

Larval exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide and competition for food modulate the melanisation and antibacterial responses of adult Anopheles gambiae

February 10, 2020 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gaël Hauser, Jacob C. Koella
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020; 10:1364.

The insecticides we use for agriculture and for vector control often arrive in water bodies, where mosquito larvae may be exposed to them. Not only will they then likely affect the development of the larvae, but their effects may carry over to the adults, potentially affecting their capacity at transmitting infectious diseases. Such an impact may be expected to be more severe when mosquitoes are undernourished.

Direct and indirect effects of predation and parasitism on the Anopheles gambiae mosquito

February 10, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fedinand Ong’wen, Patrick Ogola Onyango, Tullu Bukhari
Reference: 
Parasites Vectors 13, 43 (2020)

A good understanding of mosquito ecology is imperative for integrated vector control of malaria. In breeding sites, Anopheles larvae are concurrently exposed to predators and parasites. However, to our knowledge, there is no study on combined effects of predators and parasites on development and survival of larvae and their carry-over effects on adult survivorship and susceptibility to further parasite infection.

Transcontinental dispersal of Anopheles gambiae occurred from West African origin via serial founder events

January 15, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schmidt H, Lee Y, Collier TC, Hanemaaijer MJ, Kirstein OD, Ouledi A, Muleba M, Norris DE, Slatkin M, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC
Reference: 
Communications Biology (2019) 2: 473

The mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. is distributed across most of sub-Saharan Africa and is of major scientific and public health interest for being an African malaria vector. Here we present population genomic analyses of 111 specimens sampled from west to east Africa, including the first whole genome sequences from oceanic islands, the Comoros.

Anopheles gambiae populations from Burkina Faso show minimal delayed mortality after exposure to insecticide-treated nets

January 14, 2020 - 10:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hughes A, Lissenden N, Viana M, Toé KH, Ranson H
Reference: 
Parasites Vectors, 2020 Jan 10; 13(1):17

The efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria in Africa is threatened by insecticide resistance. Bioassays assessing 24-hour mortality post-LLIN exposure have established that resistance to the concentration of pyrethroids used in LLINs is widespread. However, although mosquitoes may no longer be rapidly killed by LLIN exposure, a delayed mortality effect has been shown to reduce the transmission potential of mosquitoes exposed to nets. This has been postulated to partially explain the continued efficacy of LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant populations. Burkina Faso is one of a number of countries with very high malaria burdens and pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where progress in controlling this disease has stagnated. We measured the impact of LLIN exposure on mosquito longevity in an area of the country with intense pyrethroid resistance to establish whether pyrethroid exposure was still shortening mosquito lifespan in this setting.

Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays for karyotyping the widespread 2Rb inversion in malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex

January 14, 2020 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Montanez-Gonzalez R, Pichler V, Calzetta M, Love RR, Vallera A, Schaecher L, Caputo B, Pombi M, Petrarca V, Della Torre A, Besansky NJ
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors, Volume 13, 16 (2020)

Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play a role in adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Inversion polymorphisms are implicated in the very high ecological flexibility of the three main malaria vector species of the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex, facilitating the exploitation of anthropogenic environmental modifications and promoting a strong association with humans. In addition to extending the species’ spatial and temporal distribution, inversions are associated with epidemiologically relevant mosquito behavior and physiology, underscoring their medical importance. We here present novel PCR-RFLP based assays strongly predictive of genotype for the cosmopolitan 2Rb inversion in An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, a development which overcomes the numerous constraints inherent to traditional cytological karyotyping.

Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait in combination with long-lasting insecticidal net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Mbé, central Côte d’Ivoire

January 14, 2020 - 09:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joanna E. C. Furnival-Adams, Soromane Camara, Mark Rowland, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Welbeck A. Oumbouke and Raphael N’Guessan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:11, 7 January 2020

Indoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) has potential as a supplementary vector-control and resistance-management tool, offering an alternative mode of insecticide delivery to current core vector-control interventions, with potential to deliver novel insecticides. Given the high long-lasting insecticidal bed net (LLIN) coverage across Africa, it is crucial that the efficacy of indoor ATSB in combination with LLINs is established before it is considered for wider use in public health.

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