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Anopheles gambiae

Next-generation gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

August 26, 2020 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carballar-Lejarazú R, Ogaugwu C, Tushar T, Kelsey A, Pham TB, Murphy J, Schmidt H, Lee Y, Lanzaro GC, James AA
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Aug 24:202010214

A Cas9/guide RNA-based gene drive strain, AgNosCd-1, was developed to deliver antiparasite effector molecules to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae The drive system targets the cardinal gene ortholog producing a red-eye phenotype. Drive can achieve 98 to 100% in both sexes and full introduction was observed in small cage trials within 6 to 10 generations following a single release of gene-drive males.

New Mosquitocide Derived From Volcanic Rock

August 22, 2020 - 09:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Deguenon JM, Riegel C, Cloherty-Duvernay ER, Chen K, Stewart DA, Wang B, Gittins D, Tihomirov L, Apperson CS, McCord MG, Roe RM
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Aug 18:tjaa141

Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and the Zika and West Nile Viruses are major vector-borne diseases of humans transmitted by mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization, over 80% of the world's population is at risk of contacting these diseases. Insecticides are critical for mosquito control and disease prevention, and insect insecticide resistance is on the increase; new alternatives with potentially different modes of action from current chemistry are needed.

The Anopheles coluzzii microbiome and its interaction with the intracellular parasite Wolbachia

August 18, 2020 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Straub TJ, Shaw WR, Marcenac P, Sawadogo SP, Dabiré RK, Diabaté A, Catteruccia F, Neafsey DE
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 14;10(1):13847

Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterium commonly found in insects, can inhibit the transmission of human pathogens by mosquitoes. Biocontrol programs are underway using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes trans-infected with a non-natural Wolbachia strain to reduce dengue virus transmission. Less is known about the impact of Wolbachia on the biology and vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria parasites.

Unveiling mosquito cryptic species and their reproductive isolation

August 5, 2020 - 14:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zheng X
Reference: 
Insect Mol Biol. 2020 Aug 2. doi: 10.1111/imb.12666

Mosquitoes are major vectors of many infectious pathogens or parasites. Understanding cryptic species and the speciation of disease vectors has important implications for vector management, evolution, and host-pathogen and/or host-parasite interactions. Currently, mosquito cryptic species have been reported in many studies, most of which focus on the reproductive isolation of cryptic species and mainly on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato complex.

NOT Open Access | Identification of potential modulator of Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein 1 by hierarchical virtual screening and molecular dynamics

July 26, 2020 - 13:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
do Bomfim MR, Araújo JSC, Macêdo WJDC, Santos CBRD, Leite FHA
Reference: 
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Jul 22:1-13

Malaria is a protozoan infection transmitted by the bite of the infected female mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles spp., which causes more than 445 million annual deaths worldwide. Available drugs have serious adverse effects (e.g. blurred vision, hypotension and headache) and species-dependent efficacy. An alternative to overcome these problems involve the use of molecules with affinity to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito odor receptors, minimizing the reinfection process as well as reducing the problems related to pharmacological therapy.

Inversion Genotyping in the Anopheles gambiae Complex Using High-Throughput Array and Sequencing Platforms

July 20, 2020 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Love RR, Pombi M, Guelbeogo MW, Campbell NR, Stephens MT, Dabire RK, Costantini C, Torre AD, Besansky NJ
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2020 Jul 17:g3.401418.2020.

Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms have special importance in the Anopheles gambiae complex of malaria vector mosquitoes, due to their role in local adaptation and range expansion. The study of inversions in natural populations is reliant on polytene chromosome analysis by expert cytogeneticists, a process that is limited by the rarity of trained specialists, low throughput, and restrictive sampling requirements.

Fungal Metabolite Asperaculane B Inhibits Malaria Infection and Transmission

July 13, 2020 - 15:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Niu G, Hao Y, Wang X, Gao JM, Li J
Reference: 
Molecules. 2020 Jul 1;25(13):E3018

Mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium parasites cause millions of people worldwide to suffer malaria every year. Drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes make malaria hard to control. Thus, the next generation of antimalarial drugs that inhibit malaria infection and transmission are needed. We screened our Global Fungal Extract Library (GFEL) and obtained a candidate that completely inhibited Plasmodium falciparum transmission to Anopheles gambiae.

Fluorescent markers rhodamine B and uranine for Anopheles gambiae adults and matings

July 7, 2020 - 13:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Erica I. Aviles, Rachel D. Rotenberry, C. Mathilda Collins, Ellen. M. Dotson and Mark Q. Benedict
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:236, 6 July 2020

Marking mosquitoes is vital for mark-release-recapture and many laboratory studies, but their small size precludes the use of methods that are available for larger animals such as unique identifier tags and radio devices. Fluorescent dust is the most commonly used method to distinguish released individuals from the wild population. Numerous colours and combinations can be used, however, dust sometimes affects longevity and behaviour so alternatives that do not have these effects would contribute substantially. Rhodamine B has previously been demonstrated to be useful for marking adult Aedes aegypti males when added to the sugar meal. Unlike dust, this also marked the seminal fluid making it possible to detect matings by marked males in the spermatheca of females. Here, marking of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with rhodamine B and uranine was performed to estimate their potential contribution.

NOT Open Access | Experimental transmission of Plasmodium malariae to Anopheles gambiae

July 7, 2020 - 13:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pinilla YT, Boussougou-Sambe ST, Gräßle S, Ngossanga B, Doumba-Ndalembouly AG, Weierich A, Bingoulou G, Malinga EG, Nguiffo D, Ntoumi F, Djogbénou L, Issifou S, Wondji CS, Adegnika AA, Borrmann S, COMAL Study Group
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 4:jiaa382

Our current knowledge of the clinical burden, biology, and transmission of Plasmodium malariae is extremely scarce. To start addressing some of those questions, we experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with fresh P. malariae isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals in Lambaréné, Gabon.

Mapping trends in insecticide resistance phenotypes in African malaria vectors

June 29, 2020 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hancock PA, Hendriks CJM, Tangena JA, Gibson H, Hemingway J, Coleman M, Gething PW, Cameron E, Bhatt S, Moyes CL
Reference: 
PLoS Biol. 2020 Jun 25; 18(6):e3000633

Mitigating the threat of insecticide resistance in African malaria vector populations requires comprehensive information about where resistance occurs, to what degree, and how this has changed over time. Estimating these trends is complicated by the sparse, heterogeneous distribution of observations of resistance phenotypes in field populations.

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