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Anopheles gambiae

Transcontinental dispersal of Anopheles gambiae occurred from West African origin via serial founder events

January 15, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schmidt H, Lee Y, Collier TC, Hanemaaijer MJ, Kirstein OD, Ouledi A, Muleba M, Norris DE, Slatkin M, Cornel AJ, Lanzaro GC
Reference: 
Communications Biology (2019) 2: 473

The mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. is distributed across most of sub-Saharan Africa and is of major scientific and public health interest for being an African malaria vector. Here we present population genomic analyses of 111 specimens sampled from west to east Africa, including the first whole genome sequences from oceanic islands, the Comoros.

Anopheles gambiae populations from Burkina Faso show minimal delayed mortality after exposure to insecticide-treated nets

January 14, 2020 - 10:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hughes A, Lissenden N, Viana M, Toé KH, Ranson H
Reference: 
Parasites Vectors, 2020 Jan 10; 13(1):17

The efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria in Africa is threatened by insecticide resistance. Bioassays assessing 24-hour mortality post-LLIN exposure have established that resistance to the concentration of pyrethroids used in LLINs is widespread. However, although mosquitoes may no longer be rapidly killed by LLIN exposure, a delayed mortality effect has been shown to reduce the transmission potential of mosquitoes exposed to nets. This has been postulated to partially explain the continued efficacy of LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant populations. Burkina Faso is one of a number of countries with very high malaria burdens and pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where progress in controlling this disease has stagnated. We measured the impact of LLIN exposure on mosquito longevity in an area of the country with intense pyrethroid resistance to establish whether pyrethroid exposure was still shortening mosquito lifespan in this setting.

Highly specific PCR-RFLP assays for karyotyping the widespread 2Rb inversion in malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex

January 14, 2020 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Montanez-Gonzalez R, Pichler V, Calzetta M, Love RR, Vallera A, Schaecher L, Caputo B, Pombi M, Petrarca V, Della Torre A, Besansky NJ
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors, Volume 13, 16 (2020)

Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play a role in adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Inversion polymorphisms are implicated in the very high ecological flexibility of the three main malaria vector species of the Afrotropical Anopheles gambiae complex, facilitating the exploitation of anthropogenic environmental modifications and promoting a strong association with humans. In addition to extending the species’ spatial and temporal distribution, inversions are associated with epidemiologically relevant mosquito behavior and physiology, underscoring their medical importance. We here present novel PCR-RFLP based assays strongly predictive of genotype for the cosmopolitan 2Rb inversion in An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, a development which overcomes the numerous constraints inherent to traditional cytological karyotyping.

Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait in combination with long-lasting insecticidal net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae: an experimental hut trial in Mbé, central Côte d’Ivoire

January 14, 2020 - 09:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joanna E. C. Furnival-Adams, Soromane Camara, Mark Rowland, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Welbeck A. Oumbouke and Raphael N’Guessan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:11, 7 January 2020

Indoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) has potential as a supplementary vector-control and resistance-management tool, offering an alternative mode of insecticide delivery to current core vector-control interventions, with potential to deliver novel insecticides. Given the high long-lasting insecticidal bed net (LLIN) coverage across Africa, it is crucial that the efficacy of indoor ATSB in combination with LLINs is established before it is considered for wider use in public health.

Bacterial communities associated with the midgut microbiota of wild Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso

January 7, 2020 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zoure AA, Sare AR, Yameogo F, Somda Z, Massart S, Badolo A, Francis F
Reference: 
Molecular Biology Reports January 2020, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 211–224

Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l) species complex and is responsible for severe forms of malaria. The composition of the mosquitoes’ microbiota plays a role in P. falciparum transmission, so we studied midgut bacterial communities of An. gambiae s.l from Burkina Faso. DNA was extracted from 17 pools of midgut of mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex from six localities in three climatic areas, including cotton-growing and cotton-free localities to include potential differences in insecticide selection pressure.

Functional genetic validation of key genes conferring insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

December 10, 2019 - 11:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adolfi A, Poulton B, Anthousi A, Macilwee S, Ranson H, Lycett GJ
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 4. pii: 201914633

Resistance in Anopheles gambiae to members of all 4 major classes (pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates) of public health insecticides limits effective control of malaria transmission in Africa. Increase in expression of detoxifying enzymes has been associated with insecticide resistance, but their direct functional validation in An. gambiae is still lacking.

An odorant receptor from Anopheles gambiae that demonstrates enantioselectivity to the plant volatile, linalool

November 30, 2019 - 04:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Huff RM, Pitts RJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2019 Nov 21;14(11):e0225637

Insects express chemical receptors within sensory neurons that are activated by specific cues in the environment, thereby influencing the acquisition of critical resources. A significant gap in our current understanding of insect chemical ecology is defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie sensitivity to plant-emitted volatiles.  

NOT Open Access | A Malaria Transmission Model Predicts Holoendemic, Hyperendemic, and Hypoendemic Transmission Patterns Under Varied Seasonal Vector Dynamics

November 27, 2019 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ratti V, Wallace DI
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz186

A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.

Not Open Access | Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hyeogsun Kwon and Ryan C. Smith
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14119-14128

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens.

High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic

May 28, 2019 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sulaiman S. Ibrahim, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Helen Irving, Rabiou Labbo, Michael O. Kusimo, Izamné Mahamadou and Charles S. Wondji
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:181, 24 May 2019

Information on insecticide resistance and the mechanisms driving it in the major malaria vectors is grossly lacking in Niger Republic, thus hindering control efforts. To facilitate evidence-based malaria control, the role of Anopheles coluzzii population from southern Niger, in malaria transmission, its insecticides resistance profile and the molecular mechanisms driving the resistance were characterized.

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