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Anopheles gambiae

Insecticide resistance exerts significant fitness costs in immature stages of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya

June 16, 2021 - 12:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joyce K. Osoro, Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, Christine Wanjala, Elizabeth Omukunda, Stephen Munga, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:259, 9 June 2021

Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

Unravelling population structure heterogeneity within the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

June 15, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Campos M, Rona LDP, Willis K, Christophides GK, MacCallum RM
Reference: 
BMC Genomics. 2021 Jun 8;22(1):422

Whole genome re-sequencing provides powerful data for population genomic studies, allowing robust inferences of population structure, gene flow and evolutionary history. For the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae, other genetic aspects such as selection and adaptation are also important. In the present study, we explore population genetic variation from genome-wide sequencing of 765 An. gambiae and An. coluzzii specimens collected from across Africa. We used t-SNE, a recently popularized dimensionality reduction method, to create a 2D-map of An. gambiae and An. coluzzii genes that reflect their population structure similarities.

The relationship between house height and mosquito house entry: an experimental study in rural Gambia

June 15, 2021 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Musa Jawara, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
Reference: 
J. R. Soc. Interface, May 2021 Volume 18 Issue 178

Most malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa are acquired indoors, thus finding effective ways of preventing mosquito house entry should reduce transmission. Since most malaria mosquitoes fly less than 1 m from the ground, we tested whether raising buildings off the ground would prevent the entry of Anopheles gambiae, the principal African malaria vector, in rural Gambia.

Compensatory mechanisms in resistant Anopheles gambiae AcerKis and KdrKis neurons modulate insecticide-based mosquito control

June 9, 2021 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Perrier S, Moreau E, Deshayes C, El-Adouzi M, Goven D, Chandre F, Lapied B
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2021 Jun 2;4(1):665

In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, two point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) and the sodium channel (kdrR) genes confer resistance to organophosphate/carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, respectively. The mechanisms of compensation that recover the functional alterations associated with these mutations and their role in the modulation of insecticide efficacy are unknown.

Automated phenotyping of mosquito larvae enables high-throughput screening for novel larvicides and offers potential for smartphone-based detection of larval insecticide resistance

June 8, 2021 - 11:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buckingham SD, Partridge FA, Poulton BC, Miller BS, McKendry RA, Lycett GJ, Sattelle DB
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0008639

Pyrethroid-impregnated nets have contributed significantly to halving the burden of malaria but resistance threatens their future efficacy and the pipeline of new insecticides is short. Here we report that an invertebrate automated phenotyping platform (INVAPP), combined with the algorithm Paragon, provides a robust system for measuring larval motility in Anopheles gambiae (and An. coluzzi) as well as Aedes aegypti with the capacity for high-throughput screening for new larvicides.

Eave and swarm collections prove effective for biased captures of male Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Uganda

June 1, 2021 - 12:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Birungi K, Mabuka DP, Balyesima V, Namukwaya A, Chemoges EW, Kiwuwa-Muyingo S, Collins CM, Tripet F, Kayondo JK
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 26;14(1):281

Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosquito sampling is also necessary for population size estimations by male-based mark-release-recapture (MRR) studies and for developing innovations in mosquito control, such as the male-targeted sterile insect technique and other genetic modification approaches. This study evaluated a range of collection methods which show promise in providing a more equal, or even male-biased, sex representation in the sample.

Analysis of off-target effects in CRISPR-based gene drives in the human malaria mosquito

June 1, 2021 - 12:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Garrood WT, Kranjc N, Petri K, Kim DY, Guo JA, Hammond AM, Morianou I, Pattanayak V, Joung JK, Crisanti A, Simoni A
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jun 1;118(22):e2004838117

CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-based gene drives have been developed toward the aim of control of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Gene drives are based on an active source of Cas9 nuclease in the germline that promotes super-Mendelian inheritance of the transgene by homology-directed repair ("homing"). Understanding whether CRISPR-induced off-target mutations are generated in Anopheles mosquitoes is an important aspect of risk assessment before any potential field release of this technology.

Laboratory and field evaluation of MAÏA®, an ointment containing N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) against mosquitoes in Burkina Faso

May 26, 2021 - 09:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alphonse Traoré, Gérard Niyondiko, Antoine Sanou, Franck Langevin, N’Falé Sagnon, Adama Gansané and Moussa Wamdaogo Guelbeogo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:226, 20 May 2021

Malaria vector control relies upon the use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. However, as the emergency of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors grows, the effectiveness of these measures could be limited. Alternative tools are needed. In this context, repellents can play an important role against exophagic and exophilic mosquitoes. This study evaluated the efficacy of MAÏA®, a novel repellent ointment, in laboratory and field conditions in Burkina Faso.

Human biting rhythm of Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) and sleeping behaviour of pregnant women in a lagoon area in Southern Benin

May 25, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djènontin A, Bouraima A, Soares C, Egbinola S, Cottrell G
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2021 May 22;14(1):200

In the framework of EVALMOUS study aiming to assess the use and effectiveness of mosquito nets by pregnant women and other members of their household in a lagoon area in southern Benin, the behaviour of pregnant women relative to the time they go to bed using the net were recorded. Malaria vectors biting rhythm, Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance genes in malaria vectors were also determined.

NOT Open Access| Identification of new Anopheles gambiae transcriptional enhancers using a cross-species prediction approach

April 20, 2021 - 14:59 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Schember I, Halfon MS
Reference: 
Insect Mol Biol. 2021 Apr 17

The success of transgenic mosquito vector control approaches relies on well-targeted gene expression, requiring the identification and characterization of a diverse set of mosquito promoters and transcriptional enhancers. However, few enhancers have been characterized in Anopheles gambiae to date.

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