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Anopheles gambiae

Not Open Access | Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Hyeogsun Kwon and Ryan C. Smith
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14119-14128

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens.

High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic

May 28, 2019 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Sulaiman S. Ibrahim, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Helen Irving, Rabiou Labbo, Michael O. Kusimo, Izamné Mahamadou and Charles S. Wondji
Malaria Journal 2019 18:181, 24 May 2019

Information on insecticide resistance and the mechanisms driving it in the major malaria vectors is grossly lacking in Niger Republic, thus hindering control efforts. To facilitate evidence-based malaria control, the role of Anopheles coluzzii population from southern Niger, in malaria transmission, its insecticides resistance profile and the molecular mechanisms driving the resistance were characterized.


The current distribution and characterization of the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene in three malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis) in Benin (West Africa)

May 24, 2019 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Come Z. Koukpo, Arsène Jacques Y. H. Fassinou, Michel Sezonlin, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:175, 21 May 2019

The fight against malaria faces various biological obstacles, including the resistance of parasites to anti-malarial drugs and the resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used to impregnate mosquito nets, is known in Benin; the expansion of this resistance is influenced by the existence of gene flow between species, otherwise by the presence or absence of the kdr mutation in them. The objective of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of An. gambiae and the level of expression of the pyrethroid resistance kdr gene in seven agro-ecological zones of Benin.


Comparing the new Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test with WHO cone and tunnel tests for bioefficacy and non-inferiority testing of insecticide-treated nets

May 3, 2019 - 17:29 -- Open Access
Dennis J. Massue, Lena M. Lorenz, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:153, 30 April 2019


Insecticide-treated net (ITN) durability, measured through physical integrity and bioefficacy, must be accurately assessed in order to plan the timely replacement of worn out nets and guide procurement of longer-lasting, cost-effective nets. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance advises that new intervention class ITNs be assessed 3 years after distribution, in experimental huts. In order to obtain information on whole-net efficacy cost-effectively and with adequate replication, a new bioassay, the Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test (I-ACT), a semi-field whole net assay baited with human host, was compared to established WHO durability testing methods.

Medical Treatment: 

Introgression between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii in Burkina Faso and its associations with kdr resistance and Plasmodium infection

April 14, 2019 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Mark J. Hanemaaijer, Hannah Higgins, Ipek Eralp, Youki Yamasaki, Norbert Becker, Oscar D. Kirstein, Gregory C. Lanzaro and Yoosook Lee
Malaria Journal 2019 18:127, 11 April 2019

This paper is the first report providing divergence island SNP genotypes for natural population of Burkina Faso and corresponding Plasmodium infection rates.


Influence of blood meal and age of mosquitoes on susceptibility to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae from Western Kenya

April 4, 2019 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, David Sang, Mariangela Bonizzoni, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Malaria Journal 2019 18:112, 2 April 2019

The results showed that mosquito age and blood feeding status confers increased tolerance to insecticides as blood feeding may be playing an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin, allowing mosquitoes to rest on insecticide-treated materials despite treatment.


Detection of Plasmodium falciparum infected Anopheles gambiae using near-infrared spectroscopy

March 20, 2019 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Marta F. Maia, Melissa Kapulu, Michelle Muthui, Martin G. Wagah, Heather M. Ferguson, Floyd E. Dowell, Francesco Baldini and Lisa-Ranford Cartwright
Malaria Journal 2019 18:85, 19 March 2019

Accurate, low-cost, reagent-free screening of mosquito populations enabled by NIRS could revolutionize surveillance and elimination strategies for the most important human malaria parasite in its primary African vector species.


UDP-glycosyltransferase genes and their association and mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

March 12, 2019 - 15:33 -- Open Access
Yong Zhou, Wen-Bo Fu, Feng-Ling Si, Zhen-Tian Yan, Yu-Juan Zhang, Qi-Yi He and Bin Chen
Malaria Journal 2019 18:62, 7 March 2019

This study provides the diversity, phylogenetics and evolution of UGT genes, and potential UGT members and mutations involved in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and lays an important basis for the better understanding and further research on UGT function in defense against insecticide stress.

Impact of sunlight exposure on the residual efficacy of biolarvicides Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus against the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

February 28, 2019 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Barnabas Zogo, Bertin N’Cho Tchiekoi, Alphonsine A. Koffi, Amal Dahounto, Ludovic P. Ahoua Alou, Roch K. Dabiré, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Nicolas Moiroux and Cédric Pennetier
Malaria Journal 2019 18:55, 26 February 2019

These findings emphasize the impact of environmental variables (e.g., sunlight exposure) on the residual efficacy of Bti and Bs biolarvicides in the field.

The impact of Anopheles gambiae egg storage for mass rearing and production success

February 28, 2019 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Ernest Mazigo, Winifrida Kidima, Joseph Myamba and Eliningaya J. Kweka
Malaria Journal 2019 18:52, 26 February 2019

From this study it was concluded that storing An. gambiae eggs at 4 °C and 48 ± 2% relative humidity (RH) for 5 days is the optimal condition and time that did not affect egg hatching rates, larval development and survivorship and emerged adult mosquito sex ratio.


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