A new generation of IRS insecticides which can provide improved and prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations are being developed. Fludora® Fusion is a new IRS insecticide containing a mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid.
The reproductive fitness of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito represents a promising target to prevent malaria transmission. The ecdysteroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), transferred from male to female during copulation, is key to An. gambiae reproductive success as it licenses females to oviposit eggs developed after blood feeding. Here we show that 20E-triggered oviposition in these mosquitoes is regulated by the stress- and immune-responsive c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).
Mosquitoes use odours to find energy resources, blood hosts and oviposition sites. While these odour sources are normally spatio-temporally segregated in a mosquito’s life history, here this study explored to what extent a combination of flower- and human-mimicking synthetic volatiles would attract the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.)
Plasmodium invasion of mosquito midguts is a mandatory step for malaria transmission. The roles of mosquito midgut proteins and parasite interaction during malaria transmission are not clear. This study aims to identify mosquito midgut proteins that interact with and affect P. falciparum invasion. Based on gene expression profiles and protein sequences, 76 mosquito secretory proteins that are highly expressed in midguts and up-regulated by blood meals were chosen for analysis. About 61 candidate genes were successfully cloned from Anopheles gambiae and expressed in insect cells.
Selection pressure from continued exposure to insecticides drives development of insecticide resistance and changes in resting behaviour of malaria vectors. There is need to understand how resistance drives changes in resting behaviour within vector species. The association between insecticide resistance and resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) in Northern Ghana was examined.
Malaria vector control may be compromised by resistance to insecticides in vector populations. Actions to mitigate against resistance rely on surveillance using standard susceptibility tests, but there are large gaps in the monitoring data across Africa. Using a published geostatistical ensemble model, we have generated maps that bridge these gaps and consider the likelihood that resistance exceeds recommended thresholds.
A Cas9/guide RNA-based gene drive strain, AgNosCd-1, was developed to deliver antiparasite effector molecules to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae The drive system targets the cardinal gene ortholog producing a red-eye phenotype. Drive can achieve 98 to 100% in both sexes and full introduction was observed in small cage trials within 6 to 10 generations following a single release of gene-drive males.
Malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and the Zika and West Nile Viruses are major vector-borne diseases of humans transmitted by mosquitoes. According to the World Health Organization, over 80% of the world's population is at risk of contacting these diseases. Insecticides are critical for mosquito control and disease prevention, and insect insecticide resistance is on the increase; new alternatives with potentially different modes of action from current chemistry are needed.
Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterium commonly found in insects, can inhibit the transmission of human pathogens by mosquitoes. Biocontrol programs are underway using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes trans-infected with a non-natural Wolbachia strain to reduce dengue virus transmission. Less is known about the impact of Wolbachia on the biology and vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria parasites.
Mosquitoes are major vectors of many infectious pathogens or parasites. Understanding cryptic species and the speciation of disease vectors has important implications for vector management, evolution, and host-pathogen and/or host-parasite interactions. Currently, mosquito cryptic species have been reported in many studies, most of which focus on the reproductive isolation of cryptic species and mainly on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato complex.