Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.
Whole genome re-sequencing provides powerful data for population genomic studies, allowing robust inferences of population structure, gene flow and evolutionary history. For the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae, other genetic aspects such as selection and adaptation are also important. In the present study, we explore population genetic variation from genome-wide sequencing of 765 An. gambiae and An. coluzzii specimens collected from across Africa. We used t-SNE, a recently popularized dimensionality reduction method, to create a 2D-map of An. gambiae and An. coluzzii genes that reflect their population structure similarities.
Most malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa are acquired indoors, thus finding effective ways of preventing mosquito house entry should reduce transmission. Since most malaria mosquitoes fly less than 1 m from the ground, we tested whether raising buildings off the ground would prevent the entry of Anopheles gambiae, the principal African malaria vector, in rural Gambia.
In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, two point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) and the sodium channel (kdrR) genes confer resistance to organophosphate/carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, respectively. The mechanisms of compensation that recover the functional alterations associated with these mutations and their role in the modulation of insecticide efficacy are unknown.
Pyrethroid-impregnated nets have contributed significantly to halving the burden of malaria but resistance threatens their future efficacy and the pipeline of new insecticides is short. Here we report that an invertebrate automated phenotyping platform (INVAPP), combined with the algorithm Paragon, provides a robust system for measuring larval motility in Anopheles gambiae (and An. coluzzi) as well as Aedes aegypti with the capacity for high-throughput screening for new larvicides.
Traditional malaria vector sampling techniques bias collections towards female mosquitoes. Comprehensive understanding of vector dynamics requires balanced vector sampling of both males and females. Male mosquito sampling is also necessary for population size estimations by male-based mark-release-recapture (MRR) studies and for developing innovations in mosquito control, such as the male-targeted sterile insect technique and other genetic modification approaches. This study evaluated a range of collection methods which show promise in providing a more equal, or even male-biased, sex representation in the sample.
CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-based gene drives have been developed toward the aim of control of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Gene drives are based on an active source of Cas9 nuclease in the germline that promotes super-Mendelian inheritance of the transgene by homology-directed repair ("homing"). Understanding whether CRISPR-induced off-target mutations are generated in Anopheles mosquitoes is an important aspect of risk assessment before any potential field release of this technology.
Malaria vector control relies upon the use of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. However, as the emergency of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors grows, the effectiveness of these measures could be limited. Alternative tools are needed. In this context, repellents can play an important role against exophagic and exophilic mosquitoes. This study evaluated the efficacy of MAÏA®, a novel repellent ointment, in laboratory and field conditions in Burkina Faso.
In the framework of EVALMOUS study aiming to assess the use and effectiveness of mosquito nets by pregnant women and other members of their household in a lagoon area in southern Benin, the behaviour of pregnant women relative to the time they go to bed using the net were recorded. Malaria vectors biting rhythm, Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance genes in malaria vectors were also determined.
The success of transgenic mosquito vector control approaches relies on well-targeted gene expression, requiring the identification and characterization of a diverse set of mosquito promoters and transcriptional enhancers. However, few enhancers have been characterized in Anopheles gambiae to date.