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Anopheles gambiae

Ecological drivers of genetic connectivity for African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis

November 19, 2020 - 13:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hemming-Schroeder E, Zhong D, Machani M, Nguyen H, Thong S, Kahindi S, Mbogo C, Atieli H, Githeko A, Lehmann T, Kazura JW, Yan G
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 17;10(1):19946

Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis are major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Knowledge of how geographical factors drive the dispersal and gene flow of malaria vectors can help in combatting insecticide resistance spread and planning new vector control interventions.

The Route of Infection Influences the Contribution of Key Immunity Genes to Antibacterial Defense in Anopheles gambiae

November 19, 2020 - 13:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dekmak AS, Yang X, Zu Dohna H, Buchon N, Osta MA
Reference: 
J Innate Immun. 2020 Nov 18:1-20

Insect systemic immune responses to bacterial infections have been mainly studied using microinjections, whereby the microbe is directly injected into the hemocoel. While this methodology has been instrumental in defining immune signaling pathways and enzymatic cascades in the hemolymph, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the contribution of systemic immune defenses to host microbial resistance varies if bacteria invade the hemolymph after crossing the midgut epithelium subsequent to an oral infection.

Tenebenal: a meta-diamide with potential for use as a novel mode of action insecticide for public health

November 11, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosemary Susan Lees, Pauline Ambrose, Jessica Williams, John Morgan, Giorgio Praulins, Victoria A. Ingham, Chris T. Williams, Rhiannon Agnes Ellis Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail and David Malone
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:398, 10 November 2020

There is an urgent need for insecticides with novel modes of action against mosquito vectors. Broflanilide is a meta-diamide, discovered and named Tenebenal™ by Mitsui Chemicals Agro, Inc., which has been identified as a candidate insecticide for use in public health products.

Trials of the Automated Particle Counter for laboratory rearing of mosquito larvae

November 11, 2020 - 14:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Benedict MQ, Bascuñán P, Hunt CM, Aviles EI, Rotenberry RD, Dotson EM
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 10;15(11):e0241492

As a means of obtaining reproducible and accurate numbers of larvae for laboratory rearing, we tested a large-particle flow-cytometer type device called the ‘Automated Particle Counter’ (APC). The APC is a gravity-fed, self-contained unit that detects changes in light intensity caused by larvae passing the detector in a water stream and controls dispensing by stopping the flow when the desired number has been reached. We determined the accuracy (number dispensed compared to the target value) and precision (distribution of number dispensed) of dispensing at a variety of counting sensitivity thresholds and larva throughput rates (larvae per second) using < 1-day old Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti larvae.

NOT Open Access | Short Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Ficam 80WP (bendiocarb active ingredient) During Pilot Application of Indoor Residual Spraying in Burkina Faso, West Africa

November 10, 2020 - 14:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hien AS, Soma DD, Somé FA, Namountougou M, Poda SB, Ouédraogo GA, Diabaté A, Dabiré RK
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Nov 9:tjaa240

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) was applied in addition to the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the South West in Burkina Faso, where Anopheles gambiae s.l. the major malaria vector was resistant to pyrethroids. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and residual life of bendiocarb (active ingredient) used for spraying on different wall surfaces (mud and cement).

Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) is found where few are looking: assessing mosquito diversity and density outside inhabited areas using diverse sampling methods

October 21, 2020 - 08:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Epopa PS, Millogo AA, Collins CM, North AR, Benedict MQ, Tripet F, OʼLoughlin S, Dabiré RK, Ouédraogo GA, Diabaté A
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 15;13(1):516

One of the promising current approaches to curb malaria lies in genetic vector control, the implementation of which will require an improved understanding of the movement of genetic constructs among mosquito populations. To predict potential gene flow from one area to another, it is important to begin to understand mosquito dynamics outside of the commonly-sampled village areas, and thus how genes may move between villages. This study assessed the presence and relative abundance of mosquitoes in a 6-km corridor between two villages in western Burkina Faso.

The CLIP-domain serine protease CLIPC9 regulates melanization downstream of SPCLIP1, CLIPA8, and CLIPA28 in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

October 13, 2020 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sousa GL, Bishnoi R, Baxter RHG, Povelones M
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Oct 12;16(10):e1008985

The arthropod melanization immune response is activated by extracellular protease cascades predominantly comprised of CLIP-domain serine proteases (CLIP-SPs) and serine protease homologs (CLIP-SPHs). In the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, the CLIP-SPHs SPCLIP1, CLIPA8, and CLIPA28 form the core of a hierarchical cascade downstream of mosquito complement that is required for microbial melanization. However, our understanding of the regulatory relationship of the CLIP-SPH cascade with the catalytic CLIP-SPs driving melanization is incomplete.

Not Open Access | Phenotypic Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Specific Characterization of Underlying Resistance Mechanisms Still Matters

October 13, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Medjigbodo AA, Djogbenou LS, Koumba AA, Djossou L, Badolo A, Adoha CJ, Ketoh GK, Mavoungou JF
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 12:tjaa195

An effective control of malaria vectors requires an extensive knowledge of mechanisms underlying the resistance-phenotypes developed by these vectors against insecticides. We investigated Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Benin and Togo for their intensity of insecticide resistance and we discussed the involvement of genotyped mechanisms in the resistance-phenotypes observed.

Assessing the acoustic behaviour of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) dsxF mutants: implications for vector control

October 8, 2020 - 15:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Su MP, Georgiades M, Bagi J, Kyrou K, Crisanti A, Albert JT
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Oct 7;13(1):507

Release of gene-drive mutants to suppress Anopheles mosquito reproduction is a promising method of malaria control. However, many scientific, regulatory and ethical questions remain before transgenic mosquitoes can be utilised in the field. At a behavioural level, gene-drive carrying mutants should be at least as sexually attractive as the wildtype populations they compete against, with a key element of Anopheles copulation being acoustic courtship. We analysed sound emissions and acoustic preference in a doublesex mutant previously used to collapse Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) cages.

New insecticide screening platforms indicate that Mitochondrial Complex I inhibitors are susceptible to cross-resistance by mosquito P450s that metabolise pyrethroids

October 7, 2020 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lees RS, Ismail HM, Logan RAE, Malone D, Davies R, Anthousi A, Adolfi A, Lycett GJ, Paine MJI
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 1;10(1):16232

Fenazaquin, pyridaben, tolfenpyrad and fenpyroximate are Complex I inhibitors offering a new mode of action for insecticidal malaria vector control. However, extended exposure to pyrethroid based products such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has created mosquito populations that are largely pyrethroid-resistant, often with elevated levels of P450s that can metabolise and neutralise diverse substrates.

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