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Anopheles gambiae

An odorant receptor from Anopheles gambiae that demonstrates enantioselectivity to the plant volatile, linalool

November 30, 2019 - 04:49 -- Open Access
Huff RM, Pitts RJ
PLoS One. 2019 Nov 21;14(11):e0225637

Insects express chemical receptors within sensory neurons that are activated by specific cues in the environment, thereby influencing the acquisition of critical resources. A significant gap in our current understanding of insect chemical ecology is defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie sensitivity to plant-emitted volatiles.  

NOT Open Access | A Malaria Transmission Model Predicts Holoendemic, Hyperendemic, and Hypoendemic Transmission Patterns Under Varied Seasonal Vector Dynamics

November 27, 2019 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Ratti V, Wallace DI
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz186

A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.

Not Open Access | Chemical depletion of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals dual roles of mosquito hemocytes in anti-Plasmodium immunity

July 16, 2019 - 16:23 -- NOT Open Access
Hyeogsun Kwon and Ryan C. Smith
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14119-14128

Mosquito immunity is composed of both cellular and humoral factors that provide protection from invading pathogens.

High Plasmodium infection and multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Sahel of Niger Republic

May 28, 2019 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Sulaiman S. Ibrahim, Muhammad M. Mukhtar, Helen Irving, Rabiou Labbo, Michael O. Kusimo, Izamné Mahamadou and Charles S. Wondji
Malaria Journal 2019 18:181, 24 May 2019

Information on insecticide resistance and the mechanisms driving it in the major malaria vectors is grossly lacking in Niger Republic, thus hindering control efforts. To facilitate evidence-based malaria control, the role of Anopheles coluzzii population from southern Niger, in malaria transmission, its insecticides resistance profile and the molecular mechanisms driving the resistance were characterized.


The current distribution and characterization of the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene in three malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis) in Benin (West Africa)

May 24, 2019 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Come Z. Koukpo, Arsène Jacques Y. H. Fassinou, Michel Sezonlin, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:175, 21 May 2019

The fight against malaria faces various biological obstacles, including the resistance of parasites to anti-malarial drugs and the resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides. The resistance of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used to impregnate mosquito nets, is known in Benin; the expansion of this resistance is influenced by the existence of gene flow between species, otherwise by the presence or absence of the kdr mutation in them. The objective of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of An. gambiae and the level of expression of the pyrethroid resistance kdr gene in seven agro-ecological zones of Benin.


Comparing the new Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test with WHO cone and tunnel tests for bioefficacy and non-inferiority testing of insecticide-treated nets

May 3, 2019 - 17:29 -- Open Access
Dennis J. Massue, Lena M. Lorenz, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Malaria Journal 2019 18:153, 30 April 2019


Insecticide-treated net (ITN) durability, measured through physical integrity and bioefficacy, must be accurately assessed in order to plan the timely replacement of worn out nets and guide procurement of longer-lasting, cost-effective nets. World Health Organization (WHO) guidance advises that new intervention class ITNs be assessed 3 years after distribution, in experimental huts. In order to obtain information on whole-net efficacy cost-effectively and with adequate replication, a new bioassay, the Ifakara Ambient Chamber Test (I-ACT), a semi-field whole net assay baited with human host, was compared to established WHO durability testing methods.

Medical Treatment: 

Introgression between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii in Burkina Faso and its associations with kdr resistance and Plasmodium infection

April 14, 2019 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Mark J. Hanemaaijer, Hannah Higgins, Ipek Eralp, Youki Yamasaki, Norbert Becker, Oscar D. Kirstein, Gregory C. Lanzaro and Yoosook Lee
Malaria Journal 2019 18:127, 11 April 2019

This paper is the first report providing divergence island SNP genotypes for natural population of Burkina Faso and corresponding Plasmodium infection rates.


Influence of blood meal and age of mosquitoes on susceptibility to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae from Western Kenya

April 4, 2019 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, David Sang, Mariangela Bonizzoni, Guofa Zhou, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Malaria Journal 2019 18:112, 2 April 2019

The results showed that mosquito age and blood feeding status confers increased tolerance to insecticides as blood feeding may be playing an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin, allowing mosquitoes to rest on insecticide-treated materials despite treatment.


Detection of Plasmodium falciparum infected Anopheles gambiae using near-infrared spectroscopy

March 20, 2019 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Marta F. Maia, Melissa Kapulu, Michelle Muthui, Martin G. Wagah, Heather M. Ferguson, Floyd E. Dowell, Francesco Baldini and Lisa-Ranford Cartwright
Malaria Journal 2019 18:85, 19 March 2019

Accurate, low-cost, reagent-free screening of mosquito populations enabled by NIRS could revolutionize surveillance and elimination strategies for the most important human malaria parasite in its primary African vector species.


UDP-glycosyltransferase genes and their association and mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

March 12, 2019 - 15:33 -- Open Access
Yong Zhou, Wen-Bo Fu, Feng-Ling Si, Zhen-Tian Yan, Yu-Juan Zhang, Qi-Yi He and Bin Chen
Malaria Journal 2019 18:62, 7 March 2019

This study provides the diversity, phylogenetics and evolution of UGT genes, and potential UGT members and mutations involved in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis, and lays an important basis for the better understanding and further research on UGT function in defense against insecticide stress.


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