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Anopheles gambiae

Swarming Behavior in Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato): Current Knowledge and Future Outlook

October 12, 2021 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Baeshen R
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Oct 7:tjab157

Effective management of insect disease vectors requires a detailed understanding of their ecology and behavior. In Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mating occurs during swarming, but knowledge of their mating behavior under natural conditions is limited. Mosquitoes mate in flight over specific landmarks, known as swarm markers, at particular locations. Swarms consist of males; the females usually approach the swarm and depart following copulation. The number of mating pairs per swarm is closely associated with swarm size.

NOT Open Access | Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles gambiae Not Associated with Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net Effectiveness Across Sub-Saharan Africa

August 25, 2021 - 15:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Larsen DA, Church RL
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:tpmd200229

Pyrethroid resistance is a major concern for malaria vector control programs that predominantly rely on insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Contradictory results of the impact of resistance have been observed during field studies. We combined continent-wide estimates of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae from 2006 to 2017, with continent-wide survey data to assess the effect of increasing pyrethroid resistance on the effectiveness of ITNs to prevent malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

NOT Open Access | First report of N1575Y mutation in Anopheles gambiae in Sierra Leone

August 4, 2021 - 11:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Yin J, Yamba F, Zheng C, Smith SJ, Wang L, Li H, Xia Z, Zhou S, Xiao N
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Aug;92:104852

The resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides is one of the biological obstacles in the fight against malaria. Understanding of the status and mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae species is necessary for success of vector control efforts. The study aimed to determine the molecular forms of An. gambiae from four districts in Sierra Leone during May and June 2018, and the level of N1575Y mutation.

Gene-drive suppression of mosquito populations in large cages as a bridge between lab and field

August 3, 2021 - 17:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hammond A, Pollegioni P, Persampieri T, North A, Minuz R, Trusso A, Bucci A, Kyrou K, Morianou I, Simoni A, Nolan T, Müller R, Crisanti A
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jul 28;12(1):4589

CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology.Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours.

Characterization of resistance profile (intensity and mechanisms) of Anopheles gambiae in three communes of northern Benin, West Africa

July 28, 2021 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Casimir Dossou Kpanou, Hermann W. Sagbohan, Martin Akogbéto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:328, 27 July 2021

The selection and the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control tools are a major and ongoing challenge to malaria vector control programmes. This study aimed to determine the intensity of vector resistance to insecticides in three regions of Benin with different agro-ecological characteristics.

Root exudate chemical cues of an invasive plant modulate oviposition behavior and survivorship of a malaria mosquito vector

July 21, 2021 - 18:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Milugo TK, Tchouassi DP, Kavishe RA, Dinglasan RR, Torto B
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14785

Gravid female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes identify suitable oviposition sites through a repertoire of cues, but the influence of allelochemicals, especially root phytochemicals in modulating this behavior and impacting subsequent progeny bionomics remains unexplored. We addressed these questions in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and its invasive host plant Parthenium hysterophorus. Using chemical analysis combined with laboratory behavioral assays, we demonstrate that a blend of terpenes, namely α-pinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 3-carene and (E)-caryophyllene emitted from P. hysterophorus root exudate treated-water attracted gravid females.

Distinct mechanisms mediate X chromosome dosage compensation in Anopheles and Drosophila

July 20, 2021 - 11:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Keller Valsecchi CI, Marois E, Basilicata MF, Georgiev P, Akhtar A
Reference: 
Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Jul 15;4(9):e202000996

Sex chromosomes induce potentially deleterious gene expression imbalances that are frequently corrected by dosage compensation (DC). Three distinct molecular strategies to achieve DC have been previously described in nematodes, fruit flies, and mammals. Is this a consequence of distinct genomes, functional or ecological constraints, or random initial commitment to an evolutionary trajectory?

Influence of insecticide resistance on the biting and resting preferences of malaria vectors in the Gambia

June 29, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamid-Adiamoh M, Nwakanma D, Assogba BS, Ndiath MO, D'Alessandro U, Afrane YA, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 24;16(6):e0241023

The scale-up of indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets, together with other interventions have considerably reduced the malaria burden in The Gambia. This study examined the biting and resting preferences of the local insecticide-resistant vector populations few years following scale-up of anti-vector interventions.

Pyriproxyfen-treated bed nets reduce reproductive fitness and longevity of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae under laboratory and field conditions

June 23, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nelson Grisales, Rosemary S. Lees, Hilary Ranson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:273, 22 June 2021

The efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) and pyrethroid insecticides (PPF-ITNs) is being assessed in clinical trials to determine whether they provide greater protection from malaria than standard pyrethroid-treated ITNs in areas where mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids. Understanding the entomological mode of action of this new ITN class will aide interpretation of the results from these trials.

Insecticide resistance exerts significant fitness costs in immature stages of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya

June 16, 2021 - 12:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joyce K. Osoro, Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, Christine Wanjala, Elizabeth Omukunda, Stephen Munga, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:259, 9 June 2021

Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

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