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drug resistance

NOT Open Access | Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

September 10, 2020 - 14:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wicht KJ, Mok S, Fidock DA
Reference: 
Annu Rev Microbiol. 2020 Sep 8;74:431-454

Understanding and controlling the spread of antimalarial resistance, particularly to artemisinin and its partner drugs, is a top priority. Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to chloroquine, amodiaquine, or piperaquine harbor mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT), a transporter resident on the digestive vacuole membrane that in its variant forms can transport these weak-base 4-aminoquinoline drugs out of this acidic organelle, thus preventing these drugs from binding heme and inhibiting its detoxification.

Not Open Access | Genomic Approaches to Drug Resistance in Malaria

September 10, 2020 - 14:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rocamora F, Winzeler EA
Reference: 
Annu Rev Microbiol. 2020 Sep 8;74:761-786

Although the last two decades have seen a substantial decline in malaria incidence and mortality due to the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapy, the threat of drug resistance is a constant obstacle to sustainable malaria control. Given that patients can die quickly from this disease, public health officials and doctors need to understand whether drug resistance exists in the parasite population, as well as how prevalent it is so they can make informed decisions about treatment.

NOT Open Access | Targeting and inhibiting Plasmodium falciparum using ultra-small gold nanoparticles

September 5, 2020 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varela-Aramburu S, Ghosh C, Goerdeler F, Priegue P, Moscovitz O, Seeberger PH
Reference: 
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2020 Sep 2

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium species, claims more than 400,000 lives globally each year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite renders the development of new anti-malaria drugs necessary. Alternatively, better delivery systems for already marketed drugs could help to solve the resistance problem. Herein, we report glucose-based ultra-small gold nanoparticles (Glc-NCs) that bind to cysteine-rich domains of Plasmodium falciparum surface proteins.

The potential antimalarial efficacy of hemocompatible silver nanoparticles from Artemisia species against P. falciparum parasite

September 2, 2020 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Avitabile E, Senes N, D'Avino C, Tsamesidis I, Pinna A, Medici S, Pantaleo A
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 1;15(9):e0238532

Malaria represents one of the most common infectious diseases which becoming an impellent public health problem worldwide. Antimalarial classical medications include quinine-based drugs, like chloroquine, and artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin, a molecule found in the plant Artemisia annua. Such therapeutics are very effective but show heavy side effects like drug resistance. In this study, "green" silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been prepared from two Artemisia species (A. abrotanum and A. arborescens), traditionally used in folk medicine as a remedy for different conditions, and their potential antimalarial efficacy have been assessed.

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum cases and molecular surveillance of drug resistance genes in Western Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yanrui Wu, Myat Thut Soe, Pyae Linn Aung, Luyi Zhao, Weilin Zeng, Lynette Menezes, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw and Liwang Cui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:304, 27 August 2020

Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line anti-malarial treatment in malaria-endemic areas. However, resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combinations emerging in the Greater Mekong Sub-region is a major problem hindering malaria elimination. To continuously monitor the potential spread of ACT-resistant parasites, this study assessed the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for falciparum malaria in western Myanmar.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the combination of azithromycin and naphthoquine in animal malaria models

August 26, 2020 - 14:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bei ZC, Li GF, Zhao JH, Zhang M, Ji XG, Wang JY
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Aug 24

Combination therapy using drugs with different mechanisms of action is the current state of the art in antimalarial treatment. However, except for artemisinin-based combination therapies, only few other combinations are available now. The increasing concern on the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has evoked a need for the development of new antimalarials.

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of imported malaria cases in Chile

August 17, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniel F. Escobar, Naomi W. Lucchi, Rispah Abdallah, María Teresa Valenzuela, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, María Isabel Jercic and Stella M. Chenet
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:289, 13 August 2020

Chile is one of the South American countries certified as malaria-free since 1945. However, the recent increase of imported malaria cases and the presence of the vector Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in previously endemic areas in Chile require an active malaria surveillance programme.

Molecular surveillance for drug resistance markers in Plasmodium vivax isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections at the China–Myanmar border

August 10, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yan Zhao, Lin Wang, Yaming Cao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:281, 5 August 2020

In the Greater Mekong sub-region, Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant species and imposes a major challenge for regional malaria elimination. This study aimed to investigate the variations in genes potentially related to drug resistance in P. vivax populations from the China–Myanmar border area. In addition, this study also wanted to determine whether divergence existed between parasite populations associated with asymptomatic and acute infections.

Relevance of Higher-Order Epistasis in Drug Resistance

August 5, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lozovsky ER, Daniels RF, Heffernan GD, Jacobus DP, Hartl DL
Reference: 
Mol Biol Evol. 2020 Aug 3:msaa196

We studied five chemically distinct but related 1,3,5-triazine antifolates with regard to their effects on growth of a set of mutants in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The mutants comprise a combinatorially complete data set of all 16 possible combinations of 4 amino acid replacements associated with resistance to pyrimethamine in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Early transmission of sensitive strain slows down emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax

June 23, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ayala MJC, Villela DAM
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol 16(6): e1007945

The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.

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