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drug resistance

NOT Open Access | Targeting and inhibiting Plasmodium falciparum using ultra-small gold nanoparticles

September 5, 2020 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varela-Aramburu S, Ghosh C, Goerdeler F, Priegue P, Moscovitz O, Seeberger PH
Reference: 
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2020 Sep 2

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium species, claims more than 400,000 lives globally each year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite renders the development of new anti-malaria drugs necessary. Alternatively, better delivery systems for already marketed drugs could help to solve the resistance problem. Herein, we report glucose-based ultra-small gold nanoparticles (Glc-NCs) that bind to cysteine-rich domains of Plasmodium falciparum surface proteins.

The potential antimalarial efficacy of hemocompatible silver nanoparticles from Artemisia species against P. falciparum parasite

September 2, 2020 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Avitabile E, Senes N, D'Avino C, Tsamesidis I, Pinna A, Medici S, Pantaleo A
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 1;15(9):e0238532

Malaria represents one of the most common infectious diseases which becoming an impellent public health problem worldwide. Antimalarial classical medications include quinine-based drugs, like chloroquine, and artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin, a molecule found in the plant Artemisia annua. Such therapeutics are very effective but show heavy side effects like drug resistance. In this study, "green" silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been prepared from two Artemisia species (A. abrotanum and A. arborescens), traditionally used in folk medicine as a remedy for different conditions, and their potential antimalarial efficacy have been assessed.

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum cases and molecular surveillance of drug resistance genes in Western Myanmar

September 1, 2020 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yanrui Wu, Myat Thut Soe, Pyae Linn Aung, Luyi Zhao, Weilin Zeng, Lynette Menezes, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw and Liwang Cui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:304, 27 August 2020

Currently, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line anti-malarial treatment in malaria-endemic areas. However, resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combinations emerging in the Greater Mekong Sub-region is a major problem hindering malaria elimination. To continuously monitor the potential spread of ACT-resistant parasites, this study assessed the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for falciparum malaria in western Myanmar.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the combination of azithromycin and naphthoquine in animal malaria models

August 26, 2020 - 14:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bei ZC, Li GF, Zhao JH, Zhang M, Ji XG, Wang JY
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Aug 24

Combination therapy using drugs with different mechanisms of action is the current state of the art in antimalarial treatment. However, except for artemisinin-based combination therapies, only few other combinations are available now. The increasing concern on the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has evoked a need for the development of new antimalarials.

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of imported malaria cases in Chile

August 17, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniel F. Escobar, Naomi W. Lucchi, Rispah Abdallah, María Teresa Valenzuela, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, María Isabel Jercic and Stella M. Chenet
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:289, 13 August 2020

Chile is one of the South American countries certified as malaria-free since 1945. However, the recent increase of imported malaria cases and the presence of the vector Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in previously endemic areas in Chile require an active malaria surveillance programme.

Molecular surveillance for drug resistance markers in Plasmodium vivax isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections at the China–Myanmar border

August 10, 2020 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yan Zhao, Lin Wang, Yaming Cao, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:281, 5 August 2020

In the Greater Mekong sub-region, Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant species and imposes a major challenge for regional malaria elimination. This study aimed to investigate the variations in genes potentially related to drug resistance in P. vivax populations from the China–Myanmar border area. In addition, this study also wanted to determine whether divergence existed between parasite populations associated with asymptomatic and acute infections.

Relevance of Higher-Order Epistasis in Drug Resistance

August 5, 2020 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lozovsky ER, Daniels RF, Heffernan GD, Jacobus DP, Hartl DL
Reference: 
Mol Biol Evol. 2020 Aug 3:msaa196

We studied five chemically distinct but related 1,3,5-triazine antifolates with regard to their effects on growth of a set of mutants in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The mutants comprise a combinatorially complete data set of all 16 possible combinations of 4 amino acid replacements associated with resistance to pyrimethamine in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Early transmission of sensitive strain slows down emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax

June 23, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ayala MJC, Villela DAM
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol 16(6): e1007945

The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.

NOT Open Access | Nanoemulsion composed of 10-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)thio)decan-1-ol), a synthetic analog of 3-alkylpiridine marine alkaloid: development, characterization, and antimalarial activity

June 2, 2020 - 09:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Da Silva MGD, Cardoso JF, Da Silva GRD, et al.
Reference: 
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 151, 1 August 2020, 105382

Malaria treatment is based on a reduced number of antimalarial drugs, and drug resistance has emerged, leading to the search for new antimalarial drugs incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, 10-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)thio)decan-1-ol) (thiazoline), a synthetic analog of 3-alkylpiridine marine alkaloid, and a potent antimalarial substance, was incorporated into O/W nanoemulsion.

Prevalence of pfdhfr and pfdhps mutations in Plasmodium falciparum associated with drug resistance among pregnant women receiving IPTp-SP at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, Kwale County, Kenya

May 25, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Stella Wanjiku Gikunju, Eric L. Agola, Raphael Omusebe Ondondo, Johnson Kinyua, Francis Kimani, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Indu Malhotra, Charles King, Kelvin Thiong’o and Francis Mutuku
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:190, 24 May 2020

Prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy is crucial in dealing with maternal mortality and adverse fetal outcomes. The World Health Organization recommendation to treat all pregnant women with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care structures was implemented in Kenya in the year 1998, but concerns about its effectiveness in preventing malaria in pregnancy has arisen due to the spread of SP resistant parasites. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SP resistance markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from pregnant women seeking antenatal care at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, located in coastal Kenya, between the year 2013 and 2015.

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