The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum impedes global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. For decades, treatment of malaria has relied on chloroquine (CQ), a safe and affordable 4-aminoquinoline that was highly effective against intra-erythrocytic asexual blood-stage parasites, until resistance arose in Southeast Asia and South America and spread worldwide1.
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the two protozoan parasite species that cause the majority of cases of human malaria, have developed resistance to nearly all known antimalarials. The ability of malaria parasites to develop resistance is primarily due to the high numbers of parasites in the infected person’s bloodstream during the asexual blood stage of infection in conjunction with the mutability of their genomes.
Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programme in Mali. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide new and effective ways of tracking drug-resistant malaria parasites in Africa.
Angola was the main origin country for the imported malaria in Henan Province, China.
The evolutionary selection of malaria parasites within individual hosts is an important factor in the emergence of drug resistance but is still not well understood.
Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world.
Malaria over-treatment was common, particularly in Homa Bay, where the prevalence of malaria was extremely high.