The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.
Malaria treatment is based on a reduced number of antimalarial drugs, and drug resistance has emerged, leading to the search for new antimalarial drugs incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, 10-(4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)thio)decan-1-ol) (thiazoline), a synthetic analog of 3-alkylpiridine marine alkaloid, and a potent antimalarial substance, was incorporated into O/W nanoemulsion.
Prevention and treatment of malaria during pregnancy is crucial in dealing with maternal mortality and adverse fetal outcomes. The World Health Organization recommendation to treat all pregnant women with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care structures was implemented in Kenya in the year 1998, but concerns about its effectiveness in preventing malaria in pregnancy has arisen due to the spread of SP resistant parasites. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SP resistance markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites isolated from pregnant women seeking antenatal care at Msambweni County Referral Hospital, located in coastal Kenya, between the year 2013 and 2015.
Drug resistance is a major healthcare challenge, resulting in a continuous need to develop new inhibitors. The development of these inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanisms of resistance for a critical mass of occurrences.
The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum impedes global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. For decades, treatment of malaria has relied on chloroquine (CQ), a safe and affordable 4-aminoquinoline that was highly effective against intra-erythrocytic asexual blood-stage parasites, until resistance arose in Southeast Asia and South America and spread worldwide1.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed malaria parasite, and its drug resistance poses unique challenges to malaria elimination. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is known as the global epicenter of multidrug resistance. Surveillance of molecular markers associated with drug resistance in this area will help to inform drug policy.
Resistance to antimalarial drugs is currently a growing public health problem, resulting in more cases with treatment failure. Although previous studies suggested that a concentration gradient facilitates the antibiotic resistance evolution in bacteria, no attempt has been made to investigate the roles of a concentration gradient in malaria drug resistance. Unlike the person-to-person mode of transmission of bacteria, the malaria parasites need to switch back and forth between the human and mosquito hosts to complete the life cycle and to spread the resistant alleles.
Transmission of Plasmodium vivax still persist in Malaysia despite the government's aim to eliminate malaria in 2020. High treatment failure rate of chloroquine monotherapy was reported recently. Hence, parasite drug susceptibility should be kept under close monitoring. Mutation analysis of the drug resistance markers is useful for reconnaissance of anti-malarial drug resistance. Hitherto, information on P. vivax drug resistance marker in Malaysia are limited.
Malaria parasites invade and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs), extensively modifying their structure and gaining access to the extracellular environment by placing the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC) into the RBC membrane. Expression of members of the cytoadherence linked antigen gene 3 (clag3) family is required for PSAC activity, a process that is regulated epigenetically.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a public health problem worldwide. Malaria treatment policy has faced periodic changes due to emergence of drug resistant parasites. In Sudan chloroquine has been replaced by artesunate and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS/SP) in 2005 and to artemether–lumefantrine (AL) in 2017, due to the development of drug resistance. Different molecular markers have been used to monitor the status of drug resistant P. falciparum. This study aimed to determine the frequency of malaria drug resistance molecular markers in Southeast Sudan.