The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.
Molecular markers for antimalarial drug resistance can be used to rapidly monitor the emergence and spatial distribution of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Little has been done to analyse molecular surveillance efforts or to assess surveillance coverage. This study aimed to develop an evidence map to characterise the spatial-temporal distribution and sampling methodologies of drug resistance surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically focusing on markers associated with ACT partner drugs.
Although current malaria therapies inhibit pathways encoded in the parasite's genome, we have looked for anti-malaria drugs that can target an erythrocyte component because development of drug resistance might be suppressed if the parasite cannot mutate the drug's target. In search for such erythrocyte targets, we noted that human erythrocytes express tyrosine kinases, whereas the Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes no obvious tyrosine kinases.
Malaria infection is still known to be a worldwide public health problem, especially in tropical and sub-tropical African countries like Sudan. A pilot study conducted to describe the trend of P. falciparum drug resistance markers in 2017–2018 in comparison to CQ and AS/SP eras in Sudan. The Pfcrt, Pfmdr-1, Pfdhfr, and Pfdhps genes were investigated. Data deposited by the worldwide antimalarial resistance network was consulted, and the molecular markers previously reported from Sudan were analyzed.
Malaria remains the leading cause of deaths globally, despite significant advancement towards understanding its epidemiology and availability of multiple therapeutic interventions. Poor efficacy of the approved vaccine, and the rapid emergence of antimalarial drug resistance, warrants an urgent need to expedite the process of development of new lead molecules targeting malaria.
Malaria, despite many efforts, remains among the most problematic infectious diseases worldwide, mainly due to the development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum. The antibiotic fosmidomycin (FSM) is also known for its antimalarial activity by targeting the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthesis pathway, which is essential for the malaria parasites but is absent in mammalians.
High-throughput Plasmodium genomic data is increasingly useful in assessing prevalence of clinically important mutations and malaria transmission patterns. Understanding parasite diversity is important for identification of specific human or parasite populations that can be targeted by control programs, and to monitor the spread of mutations associated with drug resistance. An up-to-date understanding of regional parasite population dynamics is also critical to monitor the impact of control efforts.
The declining effectiveness of the available antimalarial drugs due to drug resistance requires a continued effort to develop new therapeutic approaches. In this context, combination therapies hold a great promise for developing effective first-line antimalarial treatments for reducing malaria mortality. The present study explores the antimalarial efficacy of nanotized formulation of curcumin in combination with benzothiophene compound 6 (3-bromo-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide) with a view to achieve better efficacy at a very low dose in comparison to that accomplished with monotherapy alone.
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria-endemic parts of Africa, but efficacy is compromised by resistance and, in recent trials, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has shown better antimalarial protective efficacy. We utilized blood samples from a recent trial to evaluate selection by IPTp with DP or SP of Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms that alter susceptibility to these drugs.
Artemisia annua L. is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of malaria, jaundice and intense fever.