Copy number variations (CNVs) of the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), P. falciparum plasmepsin2 (pfplasmepsin2) and P. falciparum GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (pfgch1) genes are associated with anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum malaria. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays have been developed for accurate assessment of CNVs in several human genes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate ddPCR assays for detection of the CNVs of P. falciparum genes associated with resistance to anti-malarial drugs.
Malaria remains a worldwide threat, afflicting over 200 million people each year. The emergence of drug resistance against existing therapeutics threatens to destabilize global efforts aimed at controlling Plasmodium spp. parasites, which is expected to leave vast portions of humanity unprotected against the disease. To address this need, systematic testing of a fungal natural product extract library assembled through the University of Oklahoma Citizen Science Soil Collection Program has generated an initial set of bioactive extracts that exhibit potent antiplasmodial activity (EC50 < 0.30 μg/mL) and low levels of toxicity against human cells (less than 50% reduction in HepG2 growth at 25 μg/mL).
The continuous emergence of resistance to the available drugs poses major constraints in the development of effective therapeutics against malaria. Malaria drug resistance has been attributed to be the manifestation of numerous factors. For example, mutations in the parasite transporter protein acetyl-CoA transporter (Pfact) can remarkably affect its uptake affinity for a drug molecule against malaria, and hence enhance its susceptibility to resistance. To identify major contributors to its loss of functionality, we have thoroughly scrutinized eight such recently reported resistant mutants, via in-silico tools in terms of alterations in different properties.
Drug-resistant Plasmodium is a frequent global threat in malaria eradication programmes, highlighting the need for new anti-malarial drugs and efficient detection of treatment failure. Plasmodium falciparum culture is essential in drug discovery and resistance surveillance. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained erythrocytes is common for determining anti-malarial effects on the intraerythrocytic development of cultured Plasmodium parasites. Giemsa-based microscopy use is conventional but laborious, and its accuracy depends largely on examiner skill.
Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020.
The emergence and spread of anti-malarial resistance continues to hinder malaria control. Plasmodium falciparum, the species that causes most human malaria cases and most deaths, has shown resistance to almost all known anti-malarials. This anti-malarial resistance arises from the development and subsequent expansion of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific parasite genes. A quick and cheap tool for the detection of drug resistance can be crucial and very useful for use in hospitals and in malaria control programmes. It has been demonstrated in different contexts that genotyping by Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP), is a simple, fast and economical method that allows a high-precision biallelic characterization of SNPs, hence its possible utility in the study of resistance in P. falciparum.
Recent gains in the fight against malaria are threatened by the emergence and spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). When artemisinins are combined with a single partner drug, all recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies have shown reduced efficacy in some countries in the GMS at some point.
The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives and their partners in southeastern Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts, and heightens the need for an alternative therapy. We have explored the distribution of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr-1) haplotypes 10 years following adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in a bid to investigate the possible re-emergence of Chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive parasites in Nigeria, and investigated the effect of these P. falciparum haplotypes on treatment outcomes of patients treated with ACTs. A total of 271 children aged < 5 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were included in this study. Polymorphisms on codons 72-76 of the Pfcrt gene and codon 86 and 184 of Pfmdr-1 were determined using the high resolution melting (HRM) assay.
The continued emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites hinders global attempts to eradicate malaria, emphasizing the need to identify new antimalarial drugs. Attractive targets for chemotherapeutic intervention are the cytochrome (cyt) bc1 complex, which is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC) necessary for ubiquinone recycling and mitochondrially localized dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) critical for de novo pyrimidine synthesis.
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) aims to prevent malaria in children during the high malaria transmission season. The Achieving Catalytic Expansion of SMC in the Sahel (ACCESS-SMC) project sought to remove barriers to the scale-up of SMC in seven countries in 2015 and 2016. We evaluated the project, including coverage, effectiveness of the intervention, safety, feasibility, drug resistance, and cost-effectiveness.