Malaria is a life-threatening disease being treated by oral medication. This is the best treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality, prevent disease progression to the most severe form, lower the transmission of the disease and hinder the appearance of strains resistant to antimalarials.
The search for new antimalarial drugs with unexplored mechanisms of action is currently one of the main objectives to combat the resistance already in the clinic. New drugs should target specific mechanisms that once initiated lead inevitably to the parasite's death and clearance and cause minimal toxicity to the host. One such new mode of action recently characterized is to target the parasite's calcium dynamics. Disruption of the calcium homeostasis is associated with compromised digestive vacuole membrane integrity and release of its contents, leading to programmed cell death-like features characterized by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA degradation.
Studies of the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to the artemisinin family of antimalarial drugs provide a complex picture of partial resistance (tolerance) associated with increased parasite survival in vitro and in vivo.
Accurate measurement of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is critical for malaria treatment as misclassification of G6PD deficiency could cause serious harm to patients. G6PD activity should be assessed in blood samples on the day of collection. Otherwise, specimens should be stored under suitable conditions to prevent loss of G6PD activity.
Here we have described a systematic structure activity relationship (SAR) of a set of compounds inspired from cladosporin, a tool compound that targets parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Four sets of analogues, synthesized based on point changes in the chemical scaffold of cladosporin and other logical modifications and hybridizations, were assessed using high throughput enzymatic and parasitic assays along with in vitro pharmacokinetics.
Antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action and wide therapeutic potential are needed to pave the way for malaria eradication. Violacein is a natural compound known for its biological activity against cancer cells and several pathogens, including the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Herein, using chemical genomic profiling (CGP), we found that violacein affects protein homeostasis. Mechanistically, violacein binds Pf chaperones, PfHsp90 and PfHsp70-1, compromising the latter's ATPase and chaperone activities.
The claim that anti-malaria drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, can cure COVID-19 became a focus of fierce political battles that pitted promoters of these pharmaceuticals, Presidents Bolsonaro and Trump among them, against "medical elites." At the center of these battles are different meanings of effectiveness in medicine, the complex role of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in proving such effectiveness, the task of medical experts and the state in regulating pharmaceuticals, patients' activism, and the collective production of medical knowledge.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are attractive targets for the development of antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic agents and for the treatment of other human diseases. Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) from this family has been validated as a promising target for the development of antimalarial drugs. Here, we developed a high-throughput compatible assay and screened 1215 bioactive compounds to identify Plasmodium falciparum cytoplasmic LysRS (PfLysRS) inhibitor.
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening diffuse encephalopathy caused by Plasmodium falciparum, in which the destruction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main cause of death. However, increasing evidence has shown that antimalarial drugs, the current treatment for CM, do little to protect against CM-induced BBB damage. Therefore, a means to alleviate BBB dysfunction would be a promising adjuvant therapy for CM.
There is no effective vaccine against malaria; therefore, chemotherapy is to date only choice to fight against this infectious disease. However, there are growing evidences of drug-resistance mechanisms in malaria treatments. Therefore, the identification of new drug targets is an urgent need for the clinic management of the disease. Proteomic approaches offer the chance of determining the effects of antimalarial drugs on the proteome of Plasmodium parasites.