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IRS

Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya

March 2, 2021 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 1;16(3):e0240771

Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya.

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reactive, targeted indoor residual spraying for malaria control in low-transmission settings: a cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial in South Africa

March 2, 2021 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bath D, Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):816-827

Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy.

Mini-outbreak response for malaria using indoor residual spraying

March 2, 2021 - 11:24 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Hsiang MS, Mumbengegwi D, Chimumbwa J
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):771-773

In malaria-endemic settings, vector control is a key public health intervention and accounts for the majority of global spending on malaria. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide before peak malaria seasons is one widely used and effective approach.

Access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant workers: A multi-region formative assessment in Ethiopia

February 25, 2021 - 08:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Argaw MD, Woldegiorgis AG, Workineh HA, Akelom BA, Abebe ME, Abate DT, Ashenafi EG
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Feb 23;16(2):e0246251

Mobile or seasonal migrant workers are at increased risk for acquiring malaria infections and can be the primary source of malaria reintroduction into receptive areas. The aim of this formative assessment was to describe access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant or mobile workers in seven regional states of Ethiopia.

Improvement of Indoor Residual Spraying and Long‐Lasting Insecticidal Net services through structured monitoring and supervision as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

February 20, 2021 - 08:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashok K. Mishra, Sekh Nisar, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:101, 18 February 2021

The Government of Madhya Pradesh employed Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) with alpha-cypermethrin synthetic pyrethroids in sub-centres with Annual Parasite Incidence (API) from 2 to 4.99. In sub-centres with API more than 5, Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) were distributed. At the request of the State Government, the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) staff observed and provided support to both IRS and LLINs campaigns. In the year 2017, the study team monitored only the IRS campaigns, however, in the year 2018, the supportive supervision was provided to the IRS campaign teams along with post-distribution monitoring of the LLINs.

A comprehensive mobile application tool for disease surveillance, workforce management and supply chain management for Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project

February 17, 2021 - 08:56 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Yashpal Jain, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:91, 16 February 2021

Health care technologies are now offering accountability, quality, robustness, and accuracy in disease surveillance and health care delivery programmes. With the advent of mobile hand-held devices, these technologies have become more accessible and adaptable for use by field staff working in remote areas. The Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project started collection of data and conduct of routine operations using paper-based reporting systems. Observing the need for a robust and quality digital mobile application, a comprehensive mobile application tool was developed that allowed the project to conduct disease surveillance, workforce management and supply chain management.

Incremental impact on malaria incidence following indoor residual spraying in a highly endemic area with high standard ITN access in Mozambique: results from a cluster‐randomized study

February 11, 2021 - 09:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carlos Chaccour, Rose Zulliger, Francisco Saute, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:84, 10 February 2021

Attaining the goal of reducing the global malaria burden is threatened by recent setbacks in maintaining the effectiveness of vector control interventions partly due to the emergence of pyrethroid resistant vectors. One potential strategy to address these setbacks could be combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) with non-pyrethroids and standard insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study aimed to provide evidence on the incremental epidemiological benefit of using third-generation IRS product in a highly endemic area with high ITN ownership.

Bionomics and ecology of Anopheles merus along the East and Southern Africa coast

February 3, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bartilol B, Omedo I, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Rono MK
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 28;14(1):84

Malaria transmission persists despite the scale-up of interventions such as long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Understanding the entomological drivers of transmission is key for the design of effective and sustainable tools to address the challenge. Recent research findings indicate a shift in vector populations from the notorious Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) as a dominant vector to other species as one of the factors contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission.

Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia

February 2, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 1;14(1):91

The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia’s Western Province.

Which indoor residual spraying insecticide best complements standard pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets for improved control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

February 2, 2021 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Syme T, Fongnikin A, Todjinou D, Govoetchan R, Gbegbo M, Rowland M, Akogbeto M, Ngufor C
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 28;16(1):e0245804

Where resources are available, non-pyrethroid IRS can be deployed to complement standard pyrethroid LLINs with the aim of achieving improved vector control and managing insecticide resistance. The impact of the combination may however depend on the type of IRS insecticide deployed. Studies comparing combinations of pyrethroid LLINs with different types of non-pyrethroid IRS products will be necessary for decision making.

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