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IRS

NOT Open Access | Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Malaria Vector Control Strategies in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria

January 12, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Omotayo AI, Ande AT, Oduola AO, Olakiigbe AK, Ghazali AK, Adeneye A, Awolola ST
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jan 9:tjaa278

Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).

A cost analysis to address issues of budget constraints on the implementation of the indoor residual spray programme in two districts of Maputo Province, Mozambique

January 7, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neide Canana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:8, 6 January 2021

It is frequently said that funding is essential to ensure optimal results from a malaria intervention control. However, in recent years, the capacity of the government of Mozambique to sustain the operational cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is facing numerous challenges due to restrictions of the Official Development Assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost of IRS operationalization in two districts of Maputo Province (Matutuíne and Namaacha) in Mozambique. The evidence produced in this study intends to provide decision-makers with insight into where they need to pay close attention in future planning in order to operationalize IRS with the existent budget in the actual context of budget restrictions.

NOT Open Access | Performance of pirimiphos-methyl based Indoor Residual Spraying on entomological parameters of malaria transmission in the pyrethroid resistance region of Koulikoro, Mali

January 6, 2021 - 12:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Keïta M, Sogoba N, Traoré B, Kané F, Coulibaly B, Traoré SF, Doumbia S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 2:105820

Malaria vector control in Mali relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in selected districts. As part of strengthening vector control strategies in Koulikoro district, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) through the support from the US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) has strategically driven the implementation of IRS, with the LLINs coverage also rising from 93.3% and 98.2%. Due to the increased reports of vector resistance to both pyrethroid and carbamates, there was a campaign for the use of pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphate at Koulikoro between 2015 and 2016.

Malaria and COVID-19: unmasking their ties

December 23, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mogahed Ismail Hassan Hussein, Ahmed Abdalazim Dafallah Albashir, Omer Ali Mohamed Ahmed Elawad and Anmar Homeida
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:457, 23 December 2020

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed.

The Impact of Three Years of Targeted Indoor Residual Spraying with Pirimiphos-Methyl on Household Vector Abundance in a High Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Zambia

December 23, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hast MA, Stevenson JC, Muleba M, Chaponda M, Kabuya JB, Mulenga M, Shields T, Moss WJ, Norris DE
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 21

The global malaria burden has decreased substantially, but gains have been uneven both within and between countries. In Zambia, the malaria burden remains high in northern and eastern regions of the country. To effectively reduce malaria transmission in these areas, evidence-based intervention strategies are needed. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 40 high-burden districts from 2014 to 2016 using the novel organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl.

Prevention of re-establishment of malaria: historical perspective and future prospects

December 8, 2020 - 10:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
S. M. Ibraheem Nasir, Sachini Amarasekara, Renu Wickremasinghe, Deepika Fernando and Preethi Udagama
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:452, 7 December 2020

Prevention of re-establishment (POR) refers to the prevention of malaria outbreak/epidemic occurrence or preventing re-establishment of indigenous malaria in a malaria-free country. Understanding the effectiveness of the various strategies used for POR is, therefore, of vital importance to countries certified as “malaria-free” or to the countries to be thus certified in the near future.

Non-adherence to long-lasting insecticide treated bednet use following successful malaria control in Tororo, Uganda

December 8, 2020 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rek J, Musiime A, Zedi M, Otto G, Kyagamba P, Asiimwe Rwatooro J, Arinaitwe E, Nankabirwa J, Staedke SG, Drakeley C, Rosenthal PJ, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Krezanoski PJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 3;15(12):e0243303

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) are common tools for reducing malaria transmission. We studied a cohort in Uganda with universal access to LLINs after 5 years of sustained IRS to explore LLIN adherence when malaria transmission has been greatly reduced. Eighty households and 526 individuals in Nagongera, Uganda were followed from October 2017 -October 2019. Every two weeks, mosquitoes were collected from sleeping rooms and LLIN adherence the prior night assessed. Episodes of malaria were diagnosed using passive surveillance.

Assessment of antimalarial drug resistant markers in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections after 4 years of indoor residual spraying in Northern Ghana

December 8, 2020 - 10:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Myers-Hansen JL, Abuaku B, Oyebola MK, Mensah BA, Ahorlu C, Wilson MD, Awandare G, Koram KA, Ngwa AA, Ghansah A
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 7;15(12):e0233478

Drug resistance remains a concern for malaria control and elimination. The effect of interventions on its prevalence needs to be monitored to pre-empt further selection. We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum gene mutations associated with resistance to the antimalarial drugs: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), chloroquine (CQ) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs) after the scale-up of a vector control activity that reduced transmission.

Estimating malaria chemoprevention and vector control coverage using program and campaign data: A scoping review of current practices and opportunities

December 2, 2020 - 08:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nice J, Nahusenay H, Eckert E, Eisele TP, Ashton RA
Reference: 
J Glob Health. 2020 Dec;10(2):020413

Accurate estimation of intervention coverage is a vital component of malaria program monitoring and evaluation, both for process evaluation (how well program targets are achieved), and impact evaluation (whether intervention coverage had an impact on malaria burden). There is growing interest in maximizing the utility of program data to generate interim estimates of intervention coverage in the periods between large-scale cross-sectional surveys (the gold standard). As such, this study aimed to identify relevant concepts and themes that may guide future optimization of intervention coverage estimation using routinely collected data, or data collected during and following intervention campaigns, with a particular focus on strategies to define the denominator.

Malaria epidemiology and stratification of incidence in the malaria elimination setting in Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia

November 25, 2020 - 12:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Esayas E, Tufa A, Massebo F, Ahemed A, Ibrahim I, Dillu D, Bogale EA, Yared S, Deribe K
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Nov 22;9(1):160

Ethiopia has shown notable progress in reducing the burden of malaria over the past two decades. Because of this progress, the country has shifted efforts from control to elimination of malaria. This study was conducted to analyse the malaria epidemiology and stratification of incidence in the malaria elimination setting in eastern Ethiopia.

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