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Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of indoor residual spray with pirimiphos‐methyl (Actellic) on malaria transmission in Zambia

April 7, 2021 - 12:46 -- Open Access
Joseph Keating, Joshua O. Yukich, John M. Miller, Sara Scates, Busiku Hamainza, Thomas P. Eisele and Adam Bennett
Malaria Journal 2021 20:173, 1 April 2021

Widespread insecticide resistance to pyrethroids could thwart progress towards elimination. Recently, the World Health Organization has encouraged the use of non-pyrethroid insecticides to reduce the spread of insecticide resistance. An electronic tool for implementing and tracking coverage of IRS campaigns has recently been tested (mSpray), using satellite imagery to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the enumeration process. The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively analyse cross-sectional observational data to provide evidence of the epidemiological effectiveness of having introduced Actellic 300CS and the mSpray platform into IRS programmes across Zambia.

Malaria in Eswatini, 2012–2019: a case study of the elimination effort

March 24, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Theresia Estomih Nkya, Ulrike Fillinger, Makhoselive Dlamini, Onyango P. Sangoro, Rose Marubu, Zulisile Zulu, Emmanuel Chanda, Clifford Maina Mutero and Quinton Dlamini
Malaria Journal 2021 20:159, 20 March 2021

Eswatini was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to pass a National Malaria Elimination Policy in 2011, and later set a target for elimination by the year 2020. This case study aimed to review the malaria surveillance data of Eswatini collected over 8 years between 2012 and 2019 to evaluate the country’s efforts that targeted malaria elimination by 2020. Coverage of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for vector control and data on malaria cases were provided by the National Malaria Programme (NMP) of Eswatini. The data included all cases treated for malaria in all health facilities.

Development and Testing of Long-Lasting IRS Products While Revising the WHO Test Protocol

March 23, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Ole Skovmand, Gisele Ongmayeb, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Moussa Namountougou, Benson Georges Meda, Trung Trang, Duoc Dang, Tuan Nguyen
JPHI, Vol-3 Issue 4 Pg. no.– 2

The paper describes the development of a long-lasting product for Intra-domicile residual spray (IRS) and shows it is possible to obtain a residual effect of nearly 2 years. However, to obtain that the methods currently recommended by WHO for laboratory evaluation had to be modified and approached methods closer to the semifield and field evaluations as applied in later phases of WHO procedures.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl in a high malaria transmission district of Mozambique with high access to standard insecticide-treated nets

March 13, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Wagman J, Candrinho B, Muthoni R, Saifodine A, Saute F, Robertson M, Zulliger R
Malar J. 2021 Mar 10;20(1):143

As malaria cases increase in some of the highest burden countries, more strategic deployment of new and proven interventions must be evaluated to meet global malaria reduction goals.


The cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®300 CS) were assessed in a high transmission district (Mopeia) with high access to pyrethroid insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), compared to ITNs alone. The major mosquito vectors in the area were susceptible to primiphos-methyl, but resistant to pyrethoids. A decision analysis approach was followed to conduct deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 children under five years of age (U5) and 10,000 individuals of all ages, separately. Model parameters and distributions were based on prospectively collected cost and epidemiological data from a cluster-randomized control trial and a literature review. The primary analysis used health facility-malaria incidence, while community cohort incidence and cross-sectional prevalence rates were used in sensitivity analyses. Lifetime costs, malaria cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated to determine the incremental costs per DALY averted through IRS.

Impact of seasonality and malaria control interventions on Anopheles density and species composition from three areas of Uganda with differing malaria endemicity

March 10, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Henry Ddumba Mawejje, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G. Staedke, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:138, 7 March 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the malaria control interventions primarily responsible for reductions in transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa. These interventions, however, may have differential impact on Anopheles species composition and density. This study examined the changing pattern of Anopheles species in three areas of Uganda with markedly different transmission intensities and different levels of vector control.

Efficacy of indoor residual spraying with broflanilide (TENEBENAL), a novel meta-diamide insecticide, against pyrethroid-resistant anopheline vectors in northern Tanzania: An experimental hut trial

March 9, 2021 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Snetselaar J, Rowland MW, Manunda BJ, Kisengwa EM, Small GJ, Malone DJ, Mosha FW, Kirby MJ
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 3;16(3):e0248026

Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.

Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya

March 2, 2021 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 1;16(3):e0240771

Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) represent powerful tools for controlling malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. The success of these interventions relies on their capability to inhibit indoor feeding and resting of malaria mosquitoes. This study sought to understand the interaction of insecticide resistance with indoor and outdoor resting behavioral responses of malaria vectors from Western Kenya.

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reactive, targeted indoor residual spraying for malaria control in low-transmission settings: a cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial in South Africa

March 2, 2021 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Bath D, Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, et al.
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):816-827

Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy.

Mini-outbreak response for malaria using indoor residual spraying

March 2, 2021 - 11:24 -- Open Access
Hsiang MS, Mumbengegwi D, Chimumbwa J
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):771-773

In malaria-endemic settings, vector control is a key public health intervention and accounts for the majority of global spending on malaria. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide before peak malaria seasons is one widely used and effective approach.

Access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant workers: A multi-region formative assessment in Ethiopia

February 25, 2021 - 08:28 -- Open Access
Argaw MD, Woldegiorgis AG, Workineh HA, Akelom BA, Abebe ME, Abate DT, Ashenafi EG
PLoS One. 2021 Feb 23;16(2):e0246251

Mobile or seasonal migrant workers are at increased risk for acquiring malaria infections and can be the primary source of malaria reintroduction into receptive areas. The aim of this formative assessment was to describe access to malaria prevention and control interventions among seasonal migrant or mobile workers in seven regional states of Ethiopia.


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