Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.
The scale up of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets have contributed significantly to global reductions in malaria prevalence over the last two decades. However, widespread pyrethroid resistance has necessitated the use of new and more expensive insecticides for IRS. Partial IRS with pirimiphos-methyl in experimental huts and houses in a village-wide trial was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae s.l. in northern Ghana.
The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the main malaria vector control strategies in Mozambique alongside the distribution of insecticide treated nets. As part of the national insecticide resistance management strategy, Mozambique introduced SumiShield™ 50WG, a third generation IRS product, in 2018. Its residual efficacy was assessed in southern Mozambique during the 2018-2019 malaria season.
This study assessed the perception of pregnant women on indoor residual spraying (IRS), documented acceptability, and factors that significantly dictate willingness to use IRS among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ibadan Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from 500 pregnant women. Descriptive and principal component analysis (PCA) were done at 5% level of significance. Majority of the pregnant women had between good and fair knowledge of IRS. Less than 70% of the respondents were willing to allow IRS in their homes.
Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Sleeping under long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is its major control strategy. Despite high LLINs use (84%) in Ziway-Dugda District, malaria remained a public health problem, raising concern on its effectiveness. Understanding the effectiveness of malaria control interventions is vital. This study evaluated the effectiveness of LLINs and determinants of malaria in Ziway-Dugda District, Arsi Zone Ethiopia.
Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.
Here we report the first population genetic study to examine the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on Plasmodium falciparum in humans. This study was conducted in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission in Bongo District, Ghana. IRS was implemented during the dry season (November - May) in three consecutive years between 2013 and 2015 to reduce transmission and attempt to bottleneck the parasite population in humans towards lower diversity with greater linkage disequilibrium. The study was done against a background of widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets, typical for contemporary malaria control in West Africa.
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the key vector control tools with a long history of use in the world. Ethiopia has set a goal to eliminate malaria from selected districts mainly by applying IRS and the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. IRS is applied in low malaria transmission districts which are epidemic prone and in districts with high malaria transmission.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a unique challenge to health care systems globally. To curb COVID-19 transmission, mitigation measures such as travel restrictions, border closures, curfews, lockdowns, and social distancing have been implemented. However, these measures may directly and indirectly affect the delivery and utilization of essential health services, including malaria services. The suspension of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution, shortages of malaria commodities, and reduced demand for health services have hindered the continued delivery of malaria services. The overall goal of this analysis was to describe the trends in malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe prior to and during the pandemic to understand the consequences of COVID-19-related changes in the delivery and utilization of malaria services.