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Effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets in prevention of malaria among individuals visiting health centres in Ziway-Dugda District, Ethiopia: matched case–control study

July 7, 2021 - 14:44 -- Open Access
Mesfin Kelkile Wubishet, Gebretsadik Berhe, Alefech Adissu and Mesfin Segni Tafa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:301, 3 July 2021

Malaria is a major health problem in Ethiopia. Sleeping under long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is its major control strategy. Despite high LLINs use (84%) in Ziway-Dugda District, malaria remained a public health problem, raising concern on its effectiveness. Understanding the effectiveness of malaria control interventions is vital. This study evaluated the effectiveness of LLINs and determinants of malaria in Ziway-Dugda District, Arsi Zone Ethiopia.

The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton

July 6, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Makhanthisa TI, Braack L, Lutermann H
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 2;14(1):349

Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.

Not Open Access | The impact of indoor residual spraying on Plasmodium falciparum microsatellite variation in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission in Ghana, West Africa

June 22, 2021 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
Argyropoulos DC, Ruybal-Pesántez S, Deed SL, Oduro AR, Dadzie SK, Appawu MA, Asoala V, Pascual M, Koram KA, Day KP, Tiedje KE
Mol Ecol. 2021 Jun 18

Here we report the first population genetic study to examine the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on Plasmodium falciparum in humans. This study was conducted in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission in Bongo District, Ghana. IRS was implemented during the dry season (November - May) in three consecutive years between 2013 and 2015 to reduce transmission and attempt to bottleneck the parasite population in humans towards lower diversity with greater linkage disequilibrium. The study was done against a background of widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets, typical for contemporary malaria control in West Africa.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the Residual Efficacy of Actellic300 CS in Simple Huts in Central Ethiopia

June 15, 2021 - 14:58 -- NOT Open Access
Dugassa S, Mekonnen S, Muthee PW, Peter R, Zinyengere D, Feyasa MB, Sievert K
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jun 9:tjab096

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is one of the key vector control tools with a long history of use in the world. Ethiopia has set a goal to eliminate malaria from selected districts mainly by applying IRS and the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. IRS is applied in low malaria transmission districts which are epidemic prone and in districts with high malaria transmission.

Malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of routine surveillance data

May 26, 2021 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Samuel Gavi, Oscar Tapera, Joseph Mberikunashe and Mufaro Kanyangarara
Malaria Journal 2021 20:233, 24 May 2021

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a unique challenge to health care systems globally. To curb COVID-19 transmission, mitigation measures such as travel restrictions, border closures, curfews, lockdowns, and social distancing have been implemented. However, these measures may directly and indirectly affect the delivery and utilization of essential health services, including malaria services. The suspension of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution, shortages of malaria commodities, and reduced demand for health services have hindered the continued delivery of malaria services. The overall goal of this analysis was to describe the trends in malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe prior to and during the pandemic to understand the consequences of COVID-19-related changes in the delivery and utilization of malaria services.

The Immediate Effects of a Combined Mass Drug Administration and Indoor Residual Spraying Campaign to Accelerate Progress towards Malaria Elimination in Grande-Anse, Haiti

May 18, 2021 - 13:25 -- Open Access
Druetz T, Stresman G, Eisele TP, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 May 16:jiab259

Haiti is planning targeted interventions to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination. In the most affected Department (Grande-Anse), a combined mass drug administration (MDA) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaign was launched in October 2018. This study assessed the intervention effectiveness in reducing P. falciparum prevalence.

The impact of stopping and starting indoor residual spraying on malaria burden in Uganda

May 13, 2021 - 12:43 -- Open Access
Namuganga JF, Epstein A, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 May 11;12(1):2635

The scale-up of malaria control efforts has led to marked reductions in malaria burden over the past twenty years, but progress has slowed. Implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide, a proven vector control intervention, has been limited and difficult to sustain partly because questions remain on its added impact over widely accepted interventions such as bed nets.

Malaria in Venezuela: Gabaldon's legacy scattered to the winds

May 5, 2021 - 08:20 -- Open Access
Gabaldón-Figueira JC, Villegas L, Grillet ME, Lezaun J, Pocaterra L, Bevilacqua M, Paniz-Mondolfi A, González ON, Chaccour C
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 May;9(5):e584-e585

Between 1936 and 1970, Venezuela enacted one of the most important sanitary campaigns against malaria. It was led by Arnoldo Gabaldón, and its cornerstone was a national indoor residual spraying campaign with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that lasted for almost four decades. By 1961, malaria had been wiped out from 68% of the Venezuelan territory, and the mortality rate had been reduced from 164 deaths per 100 000 people in 1936 to zero in 1962.

Perceptions and prevention practices on malaria among the indigenous Orang Asli community in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia

April 28, 2021 - 15:54 -- Open Access
Mohd Bakhtiar Munajat, Mohd Amirul Fitri A. Rahim, Zulkarnain Md Idris, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:202, 27 April 2021

Malaysia is on track towards malaria elimination. However, several cases of malaria still occur in the country. Contributing factors and communal aspects have noteworthy effects on any malaria elimination activities. Thus, assessing the community’s knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards malaria is essential. This study was performed to evaluate KAP regarding malaria among the indigenous people (i.e. Orang Asli) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Efficacy of broflanilide (VECTRON T500), a new meta-diamide insecticide, for indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors

April 13, 2021 - 13:31 -- Open Access
Ngufor C, Govoetchan R, Fongnikin A, Vigninou E, Syme T, Akogbeto M, Rowland M
Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7976

The rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action for indoor residual spraying (IRS) is recommended for improving malaria vector control and managing insecticide resistance. Insecticides with new chemistries are urgently needed. Broflanilide is a newly discovered insecticide under consideration. We investigated the efficacy of a wettable powder (WP) formulation of broflanilide (VECTRON T500) for IRS on mud and cement wall substrates in laboratory and experimental hut studies against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Benin, in comparison with pirimiphos-methyl CS (Actellic 300CS).


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