The humoral immune response against Anopheles salivary glands proteins in the vertebrate host can reflect the intensity of exposure to Anopheles bites and the risk of Plasmodium infection. In Colombia, the identification of exposure biomarkers is necessary due to the several Anopheles species circulating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk of malaria infection by measuring antibody responses against salivary glands extracts from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and Anopheles (Nys.) darlingi and also against the gSG6-P1 peptide of Anopheles gambiae in people residing in a malaria endemic area in the Colombian Pacific coast.
Hybrid compounds may play a critical role in the context of the malaria eradication agenda, which will benefit from therapeutic tools active against the symptomatic erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection, and also capable of eliminating liver stage parasites.
Humoral immunity develops in the spleen during blood-stage Plasmodium infection.
Most human Plasmodium infections in western Kenya are asymptomatic and are believed to contribute importantly to malaria transmission.
Although field applicable, this high throughput format of LAMP as used here was not sensitive enough to be recommended for detection of asymptomatic low-density infections in areas like Zanzibar, approaching malaria elimination.
The four potential vector species all displayed apparent seasonality in relative abundance. While An. minimus s.l. was collected through the entire year, its abundance peaked in the season immediately after the wet season.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium goes through two life stages in the human host, a non-symptomatic liver stage (LS) followed by a blood stage with all clinical manifestation of the disease.