Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistant Plasmodium falciparum represents an increasing threat to Africa. Extended ACT regimens from standard 3 to 6 days may represent a means to prevent its development and potential spread in Africa.
artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)
Community Case Management of Malaria (CCMM) has been implemented through community health workers (CHWs) in many countries. Existing studies have shown that CHWs can be viable means of implementing CCMM. However, not many studies have examined the coverage under large-scale CCMM programmes. India is a big contributor to global malaria burden. Chhattisgarh is a leading state in India in terms of malaria incidence and mortality. CCMM was implemented on a large scale through the ‘mitanin’ CHWs in rural Chhattisgarh from 2015. Under CCMM, 37,696 CHWs in 84 high-burden administrative blocks of the state were trained and equipped with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and chloroquine.
The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.
Over the last decade, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has contributed substantially to the decrease in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia and the risk of their spread or of local emergence in sub-Saharan Africa are a major threat to public health. This study thus set out to estimate the proportion of P. falciparum isolates, with Pfkelch13 gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance previously detected in Southeast Asia.
HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) require treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) when infected with malaria. Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) is the most commonly used ACT for treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa but there is limited evidence on the safety and efficacy of AL in HIV-infected individuals on ART, among whom drug–drug interactions are expected. Day-42 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) and incidence of adverse events was assessed in HIV-infected individuals on efavirenz-based ART with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with AL.
Substantial knowledge gaps on the use of RDTs and treatment with artemisinin-based combinations exist among rural PPMVs.
Although there were more reported adverse events associated with ASAQ when compared with AL, both prescribers and patients were found to be mostly adherent to ACT for the treatment of malaria, regardless of ACT type.
Self-reported adherence was high for both AL and AQAS, but varied by site.
The results reveal important differences between provinces.
The data provide compelling evidence of impact following LLIN mass campaigns targeting all ages since 2011, while maintaining other anti-malarial interventions.