The Anopheles gambiae complex is the most important vector for malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, besides to other vectors such as Anopheles funestus. Malaria vector control must consider specific identification, genetic diversity and population structure of An. gambiae to design vector control strategies.
Control of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) remains a major challenge in Burkina Faso. Surveillance of the burden due to MiP based on routinely collected data at a fine-scale level, followed by an appropriate analysis and interpretation, may be crucial for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of existing control measures. We described the spatio-temporal dynamics of MiP at the community-level and assessed health program effects, mainly community-based health promotion, results-based financing, and intermittent-preventive-treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP).
Plasmodium falciparum transmission depends on mature gametocytes that can be ingested by mosquitoes taking a bloodmeal on human skin. Although gametocyte skin sequestration has long been hypothesized as important contributor to efficient malaria transmission, this has never been formally tested.
Candida albicans is a yeast with multiple genotypes. It’s a commensal fungus colonizing various sites. However, when the host’s immune system weakens, it becomes pathogenic and is responsible for various lesions. In Burkina Faso, antifungal drugs are frequently used, particularly fluconazole, the most used systemic antifungal. This antifungal drug and other antifungal drugs are often used for self-medication or prescribed outside of antifungal susceptibility test results. These situations led to the emergence of Candida albicans strains resistant to antifungal drugs commonly used in Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the types of Candida albicans using PCRs targeting 25S rDNA and ALT repeat sequences of the RPS and to establish their azoles and polyenes susceptibility profile.
The efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in preventing malaria in Africa is threatened by insecticide resistance. Bioassays assessing 24-hour mortality post-LLIN exposure have established that resistance to the concentration of pyrethroids used in LLINs is widespread. However, although mosquitoes may no longer be rapidly killed by LLIN exposure, a delayed mortality effect has been shown to reduce the transmission potential of mosquitoes exposed to nets. This has been postulated to partially explain the continued efficacy of LLINs against pyrethroid-resistant populations. Burkina Faso is one of a number of countries with very high malaria burdens and pyrethroid-resistant vectors, where progress in controlling this disease has stagnated. We measured the impact of LLIN exposure on mosquito longevity in an area of the country with intense pyrethroid resistance to establish whether pyrethroid exposure was still shortening mosquito lifespan in this setting.
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended to improve malaria treatment efficacy and limit drug-resistant parasites selection in malaria endemic areas. 5 years after they were adopted, the efficacy and safety of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate–amodiaquine (ASAQ), the first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria were assessed in Burkina Faso.
Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted by mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l) species complex and is responsible for severe forms of malaria. The composition of the mosquitoes’ microbiota plays a role in P. falciparum transmission, so we studied midgut bacterial communities of An. gambiae s.l from Burkina Faso. DNA was extracted from 17 pools of midgut of mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex from six localities in three climatic areas, including cotton-growing and cotton-free localities to include potential differences in insecticide selection pressure.
Measuring human exposure to mosquito bites is a crucial component of vector-borne disease surveillance. For malaria vectors, the human landing catch (HLC) remains the gold standard for direct estimation of exposure. This method, however, is controversial since participants risk exposure to potentially infected mosquito bites. Recently an exposure-free mosquito electrocuting trap (MET) was developed to provide a safer alternative to the HLC. Early prototypes of the MET performed well in Tanzania but have yet to be tested in West Africa, where malaria vector species composition, ecology and behaviour are different. The performance of the MET relative to HLC for characterizing mosquito vector population dynamics and biting behaviour in Burkina Faso was evaluated.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) treated with pyrethroids are the foundation of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Rising pyrethroid resistance in vectors, however, has driven the development of alternative net formulations. Here the durability of polyethylene nets with a novel combination of a pyrethroid, permethrin, and the insect juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen (PPF), compared to a standard permethrin LLIN, was assessed in rural Burkina Faso.
Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Along with early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), vector control is an important tool in the reduction of new cases. Alongside the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), targeting the vector larvae with biological larvicides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) is gaining importance as a means of reducing the number of mosquito larvae before they emerge to their adult stage. This study presents data corroborating the entomological impact of such an intervention in a rural African environment.