Malaria control and prevention programs are more efficient and cost-effective when they target hotspots or select the best periods of year to implement interventions. This study aimed to identify the spatial distribution of malaria hotspots at the village level in Diébougou health district, Burkina Faso, and to model the temporal dynamics of malaria cases as a function of meteorological conditions and of the distance between villages and health centres (HCs). Case data for 27 villages were collected in 13 HCs. Meteorological data were obtained through remote sensing.
Adolescents are considered at high risk of developing iron deficiency. Studies in children indicate that the prevalence of iron deficiency increased with malaria transmission, suggesting malaria seasonally may drive iron deficiency. This paper examines monthly seasonal infection patterns of malaria, abnormal vaginal flora, chorioamnionitis, antibiotic and antimalarial prescriptions, in relation to changes in iron biomarkers and nutritional indices in adolescents living in a rural area of Burkina Faso, in order to assess the requirement for seasonal infection control and nutrition interventions.
Malaria control has stalled in a number of African countries and novel approaches to malaria control are needed for these areas. The encouraging results of a recent trial conducted in young children in Burkina Faso and Mali in which a combination of the RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine and seasonal malaria chemoprevention led to a substantial reduction in clinical cases of malaria, severe malaria, and malaria deaths compared with the administration of either intervention given alone suggests that there may be other epidemiological/clinical situations in which a combination of malaria vaccination and chemoprevention could be beneficial.
The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.
The magnitude and functional patterns of intraspecific transcriptional variation in the anophelines, including those of sex-biased genes underlying sex-specific traits relevant for malaria transmission, remain understudied. As a result, how changes in expression levels drive adaptation in these species is poorly understood. We sequenced the female, male, and larval transcriptomes of three populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso.
Insecticides are currently the main tools used to reduce the transmission of malaria; therefore, the development of resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is of major concern for malaria control. The resistance level to pyrethroids is particularly high in the Western region of Burkina Faso and may affect the efficacy of insecticidal bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Adult mosquito swarming and other nocturnal behaviours exhibit spatial and temporal patterns that suggest potential vulnerability to targeted space spraying with effective insecticides. Indeed, targeted space-spraying against adult mosquito swarms has been used to crash mosquito populations and disrupt malaria transmission.
Recently, Gansané and colleagues published an article on inadequate efficacy of two different forms of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Burkina Faso. The development of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to different ACT partner drugs at levels that could affect the efficacy of two ACT would both be startling and a cause for great concern. In reviewing the available data collected since 2008 on ACT efficacy in Burkina Faso, the analysis shows that the reported efficacy of the tested ACT varies greatly.
Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This work is aimed at exploring the environmental tenets of human-biting activity in the main malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles funestus) in the health district of Diébougou, rural Burkina Faso.
Burkina Faso is among ten countries with the highest rates of malaria cases and deaths in the world. Delivery and coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is insufficient in Burkina Faso; In a 2016 survey, only 22% of eligible women had received their third dose of IPTp. It is also an extremely rural country and one with an established cadre of community healthcare workers (CHWs). To better meet the needs of pregnant women, an enhanced programme was established to facilitate distribution of IPTp at the community level by CHWs.
Malaria and malnutrition remain major problems in Sahel countries, especially in young children. The direct effect of malnutrition on malaria remains poorly understood, and may have important implications for malaria control. In this study, nutritional status and the association between malnutrition and subsequent incidence of symptomatic malaria were examined in children in Burkina Faso and Mali who received either azithromycin or placebo, alongside seasonal malaria chemoprevention.