Malaria elimination means cessation of parasite transmission. At present, the declining malaria incidence in many countries has made elimination a feasible goal. Transmission control has thus been placed at the center of the national malaria control programs. The efficient transmission of Plasmodium vivax from humans to mosquitoes is a key factor that helps perpetuate malaria in endemic areas.
Anopheles mosquitoes feed on plant nectars as their main source of sugar. Wang et al. show that Asaia bacteria proliferate in the midgut of mosquitoes that feed on glucose or trehalose.
With increasing interest in eliminating malaria from the Caribbean region, Haiti is one of the two countries on the island of Hispaniola with continued malaria transmission. While the Haitian population remains at risk for malaria, there are a limited number of cases annually, making conventional epidemiological measures such as case incidence and prevalence of potentially limited value for fine-scale resolution of transmission patterns and trends. In this context, genetic signatures may be useful for the identification and characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite population in order to identify foci of transmission, detect outbreaks, and track parasite movement to potentially inform malaria control and elimination strategies.
The development of malaria vaccines is constrained by genetic polymorphisms exhibited by Plasmodium falciparum antigens. The project the age-dependent distribution of alleles or haplotypes of three P. falciparum malaria vaccine candidates, Circumsporozoite Protein (csp), Erythrocyte Binding Antigen 175 (eba-175) and Serine Repeat Antigen 5 (sera5) in a region of intense malaria transmission in Uganda.
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was evaluated using data from a large, household-randomised trial in Houndé, Burkina Faso and Bougouni, Mali.
To improve food security, investments in irrigated agriculture are anticipated to increase throughout Africa. However, the extent that environmental changes from water resource development will impact malaria epidemiology remains unclear.
Vector control has been a key component in the fight against malaria for decades, and chemical insecticides are critical to the success of vector control programs worldwide. However, increasing resistance to insecticides threatens to undermine these efforts. Understanding the evolution and propagation of resistance is thus imperative to mitigating loss of intervention effectiveness.
To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circumstances, use of these assays is hindered by both the blood volume requirement and the availability of fragile, specially crafted glass feeders. 3D printed plastic feeders that require very small volumes of blood would thus expand the utility of membrane feeding assays.
Costa Rica is near malaria elimination. This achievement has followed shifts in malaria health policy. Here, we evaluate the impacts that different health policies have had on malaria transmission in Costa Rica from 1913 to 2018. We identified regime shifts and used regression models to measure the impact of different health policies on malaria transmission in Costa Rica using annual case records.
The second push for global malaria eradication, launched more than a decade ago, has motivated a renewed interest in the understanding of malaria transmission, and in the strategies required to interrupt it. In this respect, in order to eliminate malaria from a given geographical area, rapid detection and treatment of the clinical cases is rarely sufficient. In settings where transmission intensity is sufficiently high, populations exposed to continuous infective mosquito bites progressively develop a tolerance to malaria infections during the first few years of their life.