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pyrethroid resistance

Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles amharicus and Anopheles arabiensis from Arjo-Didessa irrigation scheme, Ethiopia

January 18, 2022 - 21:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Demissew A, Animut A, Kibret S, Tsegaye A, Hawaria D, Degefa T, Getachew H, Lee MC, Yan G, Yewhalaw D
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2022 Jan 14;17(1):e0261713

Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets are among the key malaria control intervention tools. However, their efficacy is declining due to the development and spread of insecticide resistant vectors. In Ethiopia, several studies reported resistance of An. arabiensis to multiple insecticide classes. However, such data is scarce in irrigated areas of the country where insecticides, pesticides and herbicides are intensively used. Susceptibility of An. gambiae s.l. to existing and new insecticides and resistance mechanisms were assessed in Arjo-Didessa sugarcane plantation area, southwestern Ethiopia.

NOT Open Access | The cytochrome P450 CYP325A is a major driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Central Africa

September 23, 2021 - 07:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wamba ANR, Ibrahim SS, Kusimo MO, Muhammad A, Mugenzi LMJ, Irving H, Wondji MJ, Hearn J, Bigoga JD, Wondji CS
Reference: 
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Sep 14;138:103647

The overexpression and overactivity of key cytochrome P450s (CYP450) genes are major drivers of metabolic resistance to insecticides in African malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus s.s. Previous RNAseq-based transcription analyses revealed elevated expression of CYP325A specific to Central African populations but its role in conferring resistance has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, RT-qPCR consistently confirmed that CYP325A is highly over-expressed in pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus from Cameroon, compared with a control strain and insecticide-unexposed mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles gambiae Not Associated with Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net Effectiveness Across Sub-Saharan Africa

August 25, 2021 - 15:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Larsen DA, Church RL
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:tpmd200229

Pyrethroid resistance is a major concern for malaria vector control programs that predominantly rely on insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Contradictory results of the impact of resistance have been observed during field studies. We combined continent-wide estimates of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae from 2006 to 2017, with continent-wide survey data to assess the effect of increasing pyrethroid resistance on the effectiveness of ITNs to prevent malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

NOT Open Access | Performance of pirimiphos-methyl based Indoor Residual Spraying on entomological parameters of malaria transmission in the pyrethroid resistance region of Koulikoro, Mali

January 6, 2021 - 12:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Keïta M, Sogoba N, Traoré B, Kané F, Coulibaly B, Traoré SF, Doumbia S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 2:105820

Malaria vector control in Mali relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in selected districts. As part of strengthening vector control strategies in Koulikoro district, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) through the support from the US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) has strategically driven the implementation of IRS, with the LLINs coverage also rising from 93.3% and 98.2%. Due to the increased reports of vector resistance to both pyrethroid and carbamates, there was a campaign for the use of pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphate at Koulikoro between 2015 and 2016.

Phenotypic, genotypic and biochemical changes during pyrethroid resistance selection in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

November 11, 2020 - 14:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Machani MG, Ochomo E, Zhong D, Zhou G, Wang X, Githeko AK, Yan G, Afrane YA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 4;10(1):19063

The directional selection for insecticide resistance due to indiscriminate use of insecticides in public health and agricultural system favors an increase in the frequency of insecticide-resistant alleles in the natural populations. Similarly, removal of selection pressure generally leads to decay in resistance. Past investigations on the emergence of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes mostly relied on field survey of resistance in vector populations that typically had a complex history of exposure to various public health and agricultural pest control insecticides in nature, and thus the effect of specific insecticides on rate of resistance emergency or resistance decay rate is not known.

A differential expression of pyrethroid resistance genes in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Uganda is associated with patterns of gene flow

November 11, 2020 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandeu MM, Mulamba C, Weedall GD, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 10;15(11):e0240743

Insecticide resistance is challenging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control interventions to reduce malaria burden in Africa. Understanding the molecular basis of insecticides resistance and patterns of gene flow in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus are important steps for designing effective resistance management strategies. Here, we investigated the association between patterns of genetic structure and expression profiles of genes involved in the pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus across Uganda and neighboring Kenya.

Performance of IRS on malaria prevalence and incidence using pirimiphos-methyl in the context of pyrethroid resistance in Koulikoro region, Mali

August 17, 2020 - 13:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fousseyni Kané, Moussa Keïta, Boïssé Traoré, Sory Ibrahim Diawara, Sidy Bane, Souleymane Diarra, Nafomon Sogoba and Seydou Doumbia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:286, 12 August 2020

Koulikoro Health District is one of three districts of Mali where the indoor residual spray (IRS) has been implemented from 2008 to 2016. With widespread of resistance to pyrethroid, IRS was shifted from pyrethroid to pirimiphos-methyl from 2014 to 2016. The objective of this study was to assess the added value of IRS to LLINs on the prevalence of parasitaemia and malaria incidence among children under 10 years old.

NOT Open Access | Preliminary Report of Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles vagus, an Important Malaria Vector in Bangladesh

August 12, 2020 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Alam MS, Al-Amin HM, Khan WA, Haque R, Nahlen BL, Lobo NF
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug;103(2):810-811

According to the WHO, unmanaged insecticide resistance may lead to increases in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Bangladesh, having made significant progress in malaria control efforts, has recently seen an upswing in malaria cases-58% of which occurred in Bandarban district. Toward identifying entomological drivers of increased malaria, an entomological survey including Anopheles susceptibility to the insecticides in use was conducted in Bandarban.

NOT Open Access | Preliminary Report of Pyrethroid Resistance in Anopheles vagus, an Important Malaria Vector in Bangladesh

May 13, 2020 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Alam MS, Al-Amin HM, Khan WA, Haque R, Nahlen BL, Lobo NF
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 11

According to the WHO, unmanaged insecticide resistance may lead to increases in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Bangladesh, having made significant progress in malaria control efforts, has recently seen an upswing in malaria cases—58% of which occurred in Bandarban district.

Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) exhibit high intensity pyrethroid resistance throughout Southern and Central Mali (2016-2018): PBO or next generation LLINs may provide greater control

May 12, 2020 - 17:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sovi A, Keita C, Oxborough RM, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 8;13(1):239

Millions of pyrethroid LLINs have been distributed in Mali during the past 20 years which, along with agricultural use, has increased the selection pressure on malaria vector populations. This study investigated pyrethroid resistance intensity and susceptible status of malaria vectors to alternative insecticides to guide choice of insecticides for LLINs and IRS for effective control of malaria vectors.

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