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chloroquine

Chloroquine Potentiates Primaquine Activity Against Active and Latent Hepatic Plasmodia Ex vivo: Potentials and Pitfalls

October 21, 2020 - 09:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dembélé L, Franetich JF, Snounou G, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Oct 19:AAC.01416-20

8-aminoquinoline compounds have long been the only therapeutic agents against latent hepatic malaria parasites. These have poor activity against the blood stage plasmodia causing acute malaria and must be used in conjunction with partner blood schizontocidal agents. We examined the impacts of one such agent, chloroquine, upon the activity of primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, against hepatic stages of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium falciparum within several ex vivo systems: primary hepatocytes of Macaca fascicularis; primary human hepatocytes; and stably transformed human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2.

NOT Open Access | Absence of association between polymorphisms in the pfcoronin and pfk13 genes and the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites after treatment with artemisinin derivatives in Senegal

October 15, 2020 - 08:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Delandre O, Daffe SM, Pradines B, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Oct 9:106190

Due to resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria switched to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 in Senegal. Several mutations in the gene coding the kelch13 helix (pfk13-propeller) were identified to be associated with in vitro and in vivo artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.

Not Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum Replication factor C subunit 1 is involved in genotoxic stress response

October 13, 2020 - 12:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sheriff O, Aniweh Y, Lai SK, Loo HL, Sze SK, Preiser PR
Reference: 
Cell Microbiol. 2020 Oct 11:e13277

About half the world's population is at risk of malaria, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being responsible for the most malaria related deaths globally. Antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and artemisinin are directed towards the proliferating intra-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which is responsible for all the clinical symptoms of the disease.

Chloroquine against malaria, cancers and viral diseases

September 23, 2020 - 08:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou W, Wang H, Yang Y, Chen ZS, Zou C, Zhang J
Reference: 
Drug Discov Today. 2020 Sep 16:S1359-6446(20)30367-6

Quinoline (QN) derivatives are often used for the prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ), a protonated, weakly basic drug, exerts its antimalarial effect mainly by increasing pH and accumulating in the food vacuole of the parasites.

Distribution pattern of amino acid mutations in chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance associated genes in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax isolates from Chandigarh, North India

September 16, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaur H, Sehgal R, Kumar A, Bharti PK, Bansal D, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J, Sultan AA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;20(1):671

The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in the Treatment of Malaria and Repurposing in Treating COVID-19

September 15, 2020 - 14:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lei ZN, Wu ZX, Dong S, Yang DH, Zhang L, Ke Z, Zou C, Chen ZS
Reference: 
Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Sep 7:107672

Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of malaria, and the treatment of autoimmune diseases for several decades. As their new mechanisms of actions are identified in recent years, CQ and HCQ have wider therapeutic applications, one of which is to treat viral infectious diseases.

Antimalarial drugs inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2: an in vitro evaluation

September 15, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gendrot M, Andreani J, Pradines B, et al.
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 8:101873

In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. African countries see slower dynamic of COVID-19 cases and deaths. One of the assumptions that may explain this later emergence in Africa, and more particularly in malaria endemic areas, would be the use of antimalarial drugs.

Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination: Phase I Study to Explore Stage-specific Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in US Adults

September 15, 2020 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Healy SA, Murphy SC, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1481-1490

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against a homologous Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs, such as primaquine, act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluated CVac regimens using primaquine and/or chloroquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood-stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.

Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine Prescribing Patterns by Provider Specialty Following Initial Reports of Potential Benefit for COVID-19 Treatment - United States, January-June 2020

September 8, 2020 - 11:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bull-Otterson L, Gray EB, Budnitz DS, Strosnider HM, Schieber LZ, Courtney J, García MC, Brooks JT, Mac Kenzie WR, Gundlapalli AV
Reference: 
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Sep 4;69(35):1210-1215

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, primarily used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent and treat malaria, received national attention in early March 2020, as potential treatment and prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). On March 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate in the Strategic National Stockpile to be used by licensed health care providers to treat patients hospitalized with COVID-19 when the providers determine the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the patient.

Impact of Hydroxychloroquine/Chloroquine in COVID-19 Therapy: Two Sides of the Coin

September 8, 2020 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fatima U, Rizvi SSA, Fatima S, Hassan MI
Reference: 
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2020 Sep 1

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged as a global health threat. To address this health emergency, various therapeutic approaches are currently under investigation. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) as COVID-19 therapies, and thus World Health Organization (WHO) mentioned that "Current data shows that this drug does not reduce deaths among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, nor help people with mild or moderate disease."

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