Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.
Based on reports of parasite resistance and on World Health Organization recommendation, chloroquine was replaced with the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first choice of drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Disuse of chloroquine led to restoration of drug-sensitive parasite to some extent in certain countries. Ever since chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were touted as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been a dramatic surge in demand for the drugs.
COVID-19 has been a threat throughout the world since December 2019. In attempts to discover an urgent treatment regime for COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been on solidarity clinical trial. However, many countries have pulled HCQ and CQ from their COVID-19 treatment regimens recently, some countries still continue using them for patients who have previously started HCQ and CQ and they may complete their course under the supervision of a doctor. HCQ and CQ are 4-aminoquinoline drugs and it is safe to use them for autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria as well.
Malaria is a disease that requires new drugs not only to fight Plasmodium but also to reduce symptoms of infection such as fever and inflammation. A series of 21 hybrid compounds were designed from chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) linked to the pharmacophoric group present in phenylacetic anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds were designed to have dual activity: namely, to be capable of killing Plasmodium and still act on the inflammatory process caused by malaria infection.
In clinical practice chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered into when developing the most efficient treatments for patients.
The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns.
Artesunate is a safe noncytotoxic drug with low side effects which is used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. In addition to being an antimalarial drug, artesunate also has immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiviral activity. There are in vivo and in vitro studies reporting that artesunate may have a positive effect on the treatment of COVID-19.
The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.
Broad spectrum antimalarial drugs without deleterious effects on mitochondria are scarce. It is in this regard that we investigated the potency of methanol extract and solvent fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei, toxicity and its consequential effects on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening.
Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medications for treating non-resistant malaria, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, both drugs are currently used off-label in hospitals worldwide and in numerous clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.