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An Ultra-Sensitive Technique: Using Pv-mtCOX1 qPCR to Detect Early Recurrences of Plasmodium vivax in Patients in the Brazilian Amazon

January 5, 2021 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Barbosa LRA, da Silva EL, Melo GC, et al.
Pathogens. 2020 Dec 30;10(1):E19

Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.

Treatment of COVID-19 with Chloroquine: Implication for Malaria Chemotherapy Using ACTs in Disease Endemic Countries

December 29, 2020 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Quashie NB, Duah-Quashie NO
J Trop Pediatr. 2020 Dec 27:fmaa089

Based on reports of parasite resistance and on World Health Organization recommendation, chloroquine was replaced with the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first choice of drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Disuse of chloroquine led to restoration of drug-sensitive parasite to some extent in certain countries. Ever since chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were touted as potential treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been a dramatic surge in demand for the drugs.

Liquid Chromatographic Methods for COVID-19 Drugs, Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine

December 23, 2020 - 08:49 -- Open Access
Bilgin ZD, Evcil I, Yazgi D, Binay G, Okuyucu Genc C, Gulsen B, Huseynova A, Ozdemir AZ, Ozmen E, Usta Y, Ustun S, Caglar Andac S
J Chromatogr Sci. 2020 Dec 18:bmaa110

COVID-19 has been a threat throughout the world since December 2019. In attempts to discover an urgent treatment regime for COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been on solidarity clinical trial. However, many countries have pulled HCQ and CQ from their COVID-19 treatment regimens recently, some countries still continue using them for patients who have previously started HCQ and CQ and they may complete their course under the supervision of a doctor. HCQ and CQ are 4-aminoquinoline drugs and it is safe to use them for autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria as well.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of new chloroquine and primaquine hybrids: Targeting the blockade of malaria parasite transmission

December 16, 2020 - 10:03 -- NOT Open Access
Boechat N, Carvalho RCC, Ferreira MLG, Coutinho JP, Sa PM, Seito LN, Rosas EC, Krettli AU, Bastos MM, Pinheiro LCS
Bioorg Med Chem. 2020 Dec 15;28(24):115832

Malaria is a disease that requires new drugs not only to fight Plasmodium but also to reduce symptoms of infection such as fever and inflammation. A series of 21 hybrid compounds were designed from chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) linked to the pharmacophoric group present in phenylacetic anti-inflammatory drugs. These compounds were designed to have dual activity: namely, to be capable of killing Plasmodium and still act on the inflammatory process caused by malaria infection.

NOT Open Access | Metabolism and Interactions of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine with Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Transporters

December 10, 2020 - 09:59 -- NOT Open Access
Rendic SP, Guengerich FP
Curr Drug Metab. 2020 Dec 8

In clinical practice chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are often co-administered with other drugs in the treatment of malaria, chronic inflammatory diseases, and COVID-19. Therefore, their metabolic properties and the effects on activity of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes and drug transporters should be considered into when developing the most efficient treatments for patients.

Molecular surveillance of the Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene in Peru between 2006 and 2015

December 8, 2020 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Fredy E. Villena, Jorge L. Maguiña, Meddly L. Santolalla, Edwar Pozo, Carola J. Salas, Julia S. Ampuero, Andres G. Lescano, Danett K. Bishop and Hugo O. Valdivia
Malaria Journal 2020 19:450, 4 December 2020

The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns.

NOT Open Access | Could Artesunate Have a Positive Effect on the Neurological Complications Related to Infection When It Is Used in the Treatment of COVID-19

December 8, 2020 - 10:42 -- NOT Open Access
Uzun T, Toptaş O, Aydın Türkoğlu Ş
ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Dec 3

Artesunate is a safe noncytotoxic drug with low side effects which is used in the treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria. In addition to being an antimalarial drug, artesunate also has immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiviral activity. There are in vivo and in vitro studies reporting that artesunate may have a positive effect on the treatment of COVID-19.

Assessing the in vitro sensitivity with associated drug resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates from Delhi, India

November 25, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Matlani M, Kumar A, Singh V
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov 19:108047

The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial properties and preventive effects on mitochondrial dysfunction by extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum. and Thonn) in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

November 10, 2020 - 14:30 -- NOT Open Access
Olanlokun JO, Babarinde CO, Olorunsogo OO
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Nov 6, 20200046, eISSN 2191-0286, ISSN 0792-6855

Broad spectrum antimalarial drugs without deleterious effects on mitochondria are scarce. It is in this regard that we investigated the potency of methanol extract and solvent fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei, toxicity and its consequential effects on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening.

Cardiac adverse events associated with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine exposure in 20 years of drug safety surveillance reports

November 10, 2020 - 13:23 -- Open Access
Cohen IV, Makunts T, Moumedjian T, Issa MA, Abagyan R
Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 5;10(1):19199

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medications for treating non-resistant malaria, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, both drugs are currently used off-label in hospitals worldwide and in numerous clinical trials for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


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