Activation of hypnozoites of vivax malaria causes multiple clinical relapses, which contribute to the Plasmodium vivax burden and continuing transmission. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is effective against blood-stage P. vivax but requires co-administration with primaquine to achieve radical cure. The therapeutic efficacy of primaquine depends on the generation of a therapeutically active metabolite via cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Impaired CYP2D6 metabolism has been associated with primaquine treatment failure. This study investigated the association between impaired CYP2D6 genotypes, drug-exposure to the long-acting ACT component (schizonticidal drugs) and tolerance and efficacy.
The impact of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) on morbidity and mortality remains substantial for immunocompromised individuals, including those afflicted by HIV infection, organ transplantation, cancer, autoimmune diseases, or subject to chemotherapy or corticosteroid-based therapies.
Treatment failures after chloroquine were observed following chloroquine monotherapy, with pvmdr1 amplification present in both Myawaddy and Shwegyin.
A randomized, controlled trial of CQ vs artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) for uncomplicated vivax malaria was conducted in 3 district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia. Primaquine was administered on day 28. The primary outcome was the cumulative risk of treatment failure by day 28 by Kaplan–Meier analysis.
All cases of recurrent parasitemia in the chloroquine arm occurred from day 33 onward, with corresponding whole blood chloroquine concentration lower than 100 ng/mL in all patients. Chloroquine thus remains efficacious for the treatment of P. vivax malaria in southern Vietnam, but DHA-PPQ provides more rapid symptomatic and parasitological recovery.
Quinoline-containing compounds, such as quinine and chloroquine, have a long-standing history as potent antimalarial agents.
This study demonstrates that Fluo-4 can be used to investigate PfMDR1 transport dynamics in both drug-sensitive and -resistant parasites.
This review is concerned with the lysosomotropic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinacrine and related analogues, and the current evidence for both their beneficial effects and potential adverse manifestations in various diseases.
This study determined the prevalence of pfcrt haplotypes and point mutations in pfmdr1 genes four years after the change in antimalarial treatment policy from CQ to the ACTs in Lagos, a commercial city in South-West, Nigeria.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerance of chloroquine to treat P. vivax malaria in Mauritanian patients.