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RDT

Active case detection of malaria in pregnancy using loop-mediated amplification (LAMP): a pilot outcomes study in South West Ethiopia

September 1, 2020 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guluma Tadesse, Claire Kamaliddin, Cody Doolan, Ranmalee Amarasekara, Ruth Legese, Abu Naser Mohon, James Cheaveau, Delenasaw Yewhalaw and Dylan R. Pillai
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:305, 27 August 2020

125 million women are pregnant each year in malaria endemic areas and are, therefore, at risk of Malaria in Pregnancy (MiP). MiP is the direct consequence of Plasmodium infection during pregnancy. The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the placenta adversely affects fetal development and impacts newborn birth weight. Importantly, women presenting with MiP commonly develop anaemia. In Ethiopia, the Ministry of Health recommends screening symptomatic women only at antenatal care visits with no formal intermittent preventive therapy. Since MiP can display low-level parasitaemia, current tests which include microscopy and RDT are challenged to detect these cases. Loop mediated isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technology is a highly sensitive technique for DNA detection and is field compatible. This study aims to evaluate the impact of active malaria case detection during pregnancy using LAMP technology in terms of birth outcomes.

Differential contribution of Anopheles coustani and Anopheles arabiensis to the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in two neighbouring villages of Madagascar

August 27, 2020 - 08:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Goupeyou-Youmsi J, Rakotondranaivo T, Puchot N, Peterson I, Girod R, Vigan-Womas I, Paul R, Ndiath MO, Bourgouin C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 26;13(1):430

Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of PfHRP2 and PfLDH Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance in Assosa Zone, Ethiopia

August 26, 2020 - 15:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Alemayehu GS, Lopez K, Dieng CC, Lo E, Janies D, Golassa L
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 24

In malaria-endemic countries, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) have been widely used. However, little is known regarding the diagnostic performances of these RDTs in the Assosa zone of northwest Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performances of PfHRP2 and PfLDH RDTs using microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a reference test.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of topical repellent distributed by village health volunteer networks against Plasmodium spp. infection in Myanmar: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial

August 24, 2020 - 13:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agius PA, Cutts JC, Fowkes FJI, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 20;17(8):e1003177

The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination.

A five-year trend analysis of malaria surveillance data in selected zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia

July 30, 2020 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lankir D, Solomon S, Gize A
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 28; 20(1):1175

Trend analysis of malaria surveillance data is essential to inform stakeholders on progress towards malaria control. From the total 387,096 cases of malaria reported in Amhara region in 2017, 167,079 (43.2%) cases were in Central, North and West Gondar zones. From this total figure of zones, 15,445 (9.2%) were ≤ 5 years which contributes 4% of cases in the region. So, the purpose of this study was to analyze trends of malaria parasite in Selected Zones of Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia.

Point prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and the comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR for the diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria among children under 5 years in Ghana

July 28, 2020 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Okyere B, Owusu-Ofori A, Dickerson T, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0232874

Plasmodium infection among children is a serious public health problem. Asymptomatic malaria infection among humans serves as a significant reservoir for transmitting Plasmodium to uninfected Anopheles mosquitoes, fueling malaria endemicity and asymptomatic malaria may progress to clinical malaria. Therefore, prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria infection is crucial for the management and control of malaria, especially in endemic areas. This study assessed the point prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection and evaluated the performance of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT), light microscopy and nested PCR (nPCR) for the diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria infection in a paediatric population in the Atwima Nwabiagya North district, Ghana.

Characterization of putative drug resistant biomarkers in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ghanaian blood donors

July 26, 2020 - 13:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aninagyei E, Duedu KO, Rufai T, Tetteh CD, Chandi MG, Ampomah P, Acheampong DO
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 22;20(1):533

Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which could harbour anti-malaria drug resistance genes, are commonly detected in blood donors in malaria-endemic areas. Notwithstanding, anti-malaria drug resistant biomarkers have not been characterized in blood donors with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection.

Malaria Test, Treat and Track policy implementation in Angola: a retrospective study to assess the progress achieved after 4 years of programme implementation

July 21, 2020 - 15:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sergio C. Lopes, Rukaaka Mugizi, João Esteves Pires, Fernando David, José Martins, Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Filomeno Fortes, Joana Rosário and Richard Allan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:262, 20 July 2020

Malaria is one of the main causes of death in Angola, particularly among children under 5 years of age. An essential means to improve the situation is with strong malaria case management; this includes diagnosing suspected patients with a confirmatory test, either with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy, prompt and correct treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), and proper case registration (track). In 2011, the United States President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) launched a country-wide programme to improve malaria case management through the provision of regular training and supervision at different levels of health care provision. An evaluation of malaria testing, treatment and registration practices in eight provinces, and at health facilities of various capacities, across Angola was conducted to assess progress of the national programme implementation.

NOT Open Access | Clinical Impact of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing at a US Children's Hospital

July 20, 2020 - 08:09 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Enane LA, Sullivan KV, Spyridakis E, Feemster KA
Reference: 
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Jul 13;9(3):298-304

Children who develop malaria after returning to a setting in which the disease is not endemic are at high risk for critical delays in diagnosis and initiation of antimalarial therapy. We assessed the clinical impact of the implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) on the management of children with malaria at an urban US children’s hospital that serves a large immigrant population.

Mass testing and treatment for malaria followed by weekly fever screening, testing and treatment in Northern Senegal: feasibility, cost and impact

July 15, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ruben O. Conner, Yakou Dieye, Caterina Guinovart, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:252, 14 July 2020

Population-wide interventions using malaria testing and treatment might decrease the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum infection and accelerate towards elimination. Questions remain about their effectiveness and evidence from different transmission settings is needed.

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