The role of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in the health care delivery services at the periphery level is crucial for achieving disease prevention, control and elimination goals. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, priorities and capability of ASHA related to malaria diagnosis and treatment as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh.
Ultrasensitive PCR used in low-transmission malaria-endemic settings has revealed a much higher burden of asymptomatic infections than that detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or standard PCR, but there is limited evidence as to whether this is the case in higher transmission settings.
Children are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria and other tropical, vector-borne diseases in low-resource countries. Infants presenting with acute onset fever represent a major sector of outpatient care in the Lake Victoria region. Misclassification and overuse of antibiotics and anti-malarial medications are consistent problems. Identifying the prevalent mosquito-borne pathogens in the region will reduce the prescription of non-indicated medicines.
Light microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the two commonly used methods for malaria diagnosis that rely on the direct use of unprocessed blood samples. However, both methods do not have the level of sensitivity required for malaria diagnosis in cases of low density parasitaemia. We report here the diagnostic performance of a whole blood-based reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for Plasmodium falciparum malaria diagnosis in apparently healthy blood donors and febrile neonates in Cameroon.
Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.
Precise detection of Plasmodium infections in community surveys is essential for effective malaria control. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the major techniques used to identify malaria infections in the field-based surveys. Although microscopy is still considered as the gold standard, RDTs are increasingly becoming versatile due to their rapid and adequate performance characteristics.
The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose malaria is common in sub-Saharan African laboratories, remote primary health facilities and in the community. Currently, there is a lack of reliable methods to ascertain health worker competency to accurately use RDTs in the testing and diagnosis of malaria. Dried tube specimens (DTS) have been shown to be a consistent and useful method for quality control of malaria RDTs; however, its application in National Quality Management programmes has been limited.
The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory diagnosis by microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in patients with suspected malaria. In recent years, mobile medical applications (MMAs), which can interpret RDT test results have entered the market. To evaluate the performance of commercially available MMAs, an evaluation was conducted by comparing RDT results read by MMAs to RDT results read by the human eye.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a key role in malaria case management. The most widely used RDT identifies Plasmodium falciparum based on immunochromatographic recognition of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). Deletion of the paralogous pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes leads to false-negative PfHRP2-based RDTs, and has been reported in P. falciparum infections from South America and Africa. However, identification of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions has usually been based only on failure to amplify these genes using PCR, without confirmation based on PfHRP2 protein expression, and understanding of the true prevalence of deletions is incomplete.
Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are exclusively recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda; however, their functionality can be affected by parasite-related factors that have not been investigated in field settings.