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RDT

Assessment of ASHA for knowledge, diagnosis and treatment on malaria in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh as part of the malaria elimination demonstration project

February 10, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Kalyan B. Saha, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:78, 8 February 2021

The role of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in the health care delivery services at the periphery level is crucial for achieving disease prevention, control and elimination goals. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, priorities and capability of ASHA related to malaria diagnosis and treatment as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh.

Direct Comparison of Standard and Ultrasensitive PCR for the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum from Dried Blood Spots in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

February 9, 2021 - 10:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Markwalter CF, Ngasala B, Mowatt T, Basham C, Park Z, Loya M, Muller M, Plowe C, Nyunt M, Lin JT
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Feb 8:tpmd201233

Ultrasensitive PCR used in low-transmission malaria-endemic settings has revealed a much higher burden of asymptomatic infections than that detected by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) or standard PCR, but there is limited evidence as to whether this is the case in higher transmission settings.

Multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA panel for detecting mosquito-borne pathogens: Plasmodium sp. preserved and eluted from dried blood spots on sample cards

February 3, 2021 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Philip Koliopoulos, Neema Mathias Kayange, Stephan Gehring, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:66, 1 February 2021

Children are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria and other tropical, vector-borne diseases in low-resource countries. Infants presenting with acute onset fever represent a major sector of outpatient care in the Lake Victoria region. Misclassification and overuse of antibiotics and anti-malarial medications are consistent problems. Identifying the prevalent mosquito-borne pathogens in the region will reduce the prescription of non-indicated medicines.

Diagnostic performance of a rapid whole blood-based RT-LAMP method for malaria diagnosis among apparently healthy blood donors and febrile neonates in Cameroon

February 2, 2021 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zebaze Temgoua Kemleu SG, Ngando L, Nguekeng E, Fogang B, Mafo Kapen M, Fopa SI, Biabi MF, Essangui E, Assob Nguedia JC, Ayong L
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 28;16(1):e0246205

Light microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests are the two commonly used methods for malaria diagnosis that rely on the direct use of unprocessed blood samples. However, both methods do not have the level of sensitivity required for malaria diagnosis in cases of low density parasitaemia. We report here the diagnostic performance of a whole blood-based reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for Plasmodium falciparum malaria diagnosis in apparently healthy blood donors and febrile neonates in Cameroon.

Predictive performance of rapid diagnostic tests for falciparum malaria and its modelled impact on integrated community case management of malaria in sub-Saharan African febrile children

January 31, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mischlinger J, Dudek V, Ramharter M
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 28:ciaa1942

Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.

Performance evaluation of the highly sensitive histidine‐rich protein 2 rapid test for plasmodium falciparum malaria in North-West Tanzania

January 27, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alphaxard Manjurano, Justin J. Omolo, Eric Lyimo, Donald Miyaye, Coleman Kishamawe, Lucas E. Matemba, Julius J. Massaga, John Changalucha and Paul E. Kazyoba
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:58, 22 January 2021

Precise detection of Plasmodium infections in community surveys is essential for effective malaria control. Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the major techniques used to identify malaria infections in the field-based surveys. Although microscopy is still considered as the gold standard, RDTs are increasingly becoming versatile due to their rapid and adequate performance characteristics.

The use of dried tube specimens of Plasmodium falciparum in an external quality assessment programme to evaluate health worker performance for malaria rapid diagnostic testing in healthcare centres in Togo

January 21, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ameyo M. Dorkenoo, Kafui Codjo Kouassi, Adjane K. Koura, Martin L. Adams, Komivi Gbada, Gnatoulma Katawa, Kossi Yakpa, Remi Charlebois, Ekaterina Milgotina, Michele O. Merkel and Michael Aidoo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:50, 20 January 2021

The use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to diagnose malaria is common in sub-Saharan African laboratories, remote primary health facilities and in the community. Currently, there is a lack of reliable methods to ascertain health worker competency to accurately use RDTs in the testing and diagnosis of malaria. Dried tube specimens (DTS) have been shown to be a consistent and useful method for quality control of malaria RDTs; however, its application in National Quality Management programmes has been limited.

A comparative evaluation of mobile medical APPS (MMAS) for reading and interpreting malaria rapid diagnostic tests

January 13, 2021 - 10:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Theodoor Visser, Sumedh Ramachandra, Emilie Pothin, Jan Jacobs, Jane Cunningham, Arnaud Le Menach, Michelle L. Gatton, Samaly dos Santos Souza, Sydney Nelson, Luke Rooney and Michael Aidoo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:39, 13 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory diagnosis by microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in patients with suspected malaria. In recent years, mobile medical applications (MMAs), which can interpret RDT test results have entered the market. To evaluate the performance of commercially available MMAs, an evaluation was conducted by comparing RDT results read by MMAs to RDT results read by the human eye.

Deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were uncommon in rapid diagnostic test-negative Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Uganda

January 6, 2021 - 11:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sam L. Nsobya, Andrew Walakira, Philip J. Rosenthal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:4, 2 January 2021

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) play a key role in malaria case management. The most widely used RDT identifies Plasmodium falciparum based on immunochromatographic recognition of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2). Deletion of the paralogous pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes leads to false-negative PfHRP2-based RDTs, and has been reported in P. falciparum infections from South America and Africa. However, identification of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions has usually been based only on failure to amplify these genes using PCR, without confirmation based on PfHRP2 protein expression, and understanding of the true prevalence of deletions is incomplete.

Limitations of rapid diagnostic tests in malaria surveys in areas with varied transmission intensity in Uganda 2017-2019: Implications for selection and use of HRP2 RDTs

January 6, 2021 - 11:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bosco AB, Nankabirwa JI, Kamya MR, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 31;15(12):e0244457

Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are exclusively recommended for malaria diagnosis in Uganda; however, their functionality can be affected by parasite-related factors that have not been investigated in field settings.

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