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RDT

A five-year trend analysis of malaria surveillance data in selected zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia

July 30, 2020 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lankir D, Solomon S, Gize A
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 28; 20(1):1175

Trend analysis of malaria surveillance data is essential to inform stakeholders on progress towards malaria control. From the total 387,096 cases of malaria reported in Amhara region in 2017, 167,079 (43.2%) cases were in Central, North and West Gondar zones. From this total figure of zones, 15,445 (9.2%) were ≤ 5 years which contributes 4% of cases in the region. So, the purpose of this study was to analyze trends of malaria parasite in Selected Zones of Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia.

Point prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and the comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR for the diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria among children under 5 years in Ghana

July 28, 2020 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Okyere B, Owusu-Ofori A, Dickerson T, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0232874

Plasmodium infection among children is a serious public health problem. Asymptomatic malaria infection among humans serves as a significant reservoir for transmitting Plasmodium to uninfected Anopheles mosquitoes, fueling malaria endemicity and asymptomatic malaria may progress to clinical malaria. Therefore, prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria infection is crucial for the management and control of malaria, especially in endemic areas. This study assessed the point prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection and evaluated the performance of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT), light microscopy and nested PCR (nPCR) for the diagnosis of asymptomatic malaria infection in a paediatric population in the Atwima Nwabiagya North district, Ghana.

Characterization of putative drug resistant biomarkers in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ghanaian blood donors

July 26, 2020 - 13:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aninagyei E, Duedu KO, Rufai T, Tetteh CD, Chandi MG, Ampomah P, Acheampong DO
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 22;20(1):533

Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which could harbour anti-malaria drug resistance genes, are commonly detected in blood donors in malaria-endemic areas. Notwithstanding, anti-malaria drug resistant biomarkers have not been characterized in blood donors with asymptomatic P. falciparum infection.

Malaria Test, Treat and Track policy implementation in Angola: a retrospective study to assess the progress achieved after 4 years of programme implementation

July 21, 2020 - 15:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sergio C. Lopes, Rukaaka Mugizi, João Esteves Pires, Fernando David, José Martins, Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Filomeno Fortes, Joana Rosário and Richard Allan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:262, 20 July 2020

Malaria is one of the main causes of death in Angola, particularly among children under 5 years of age. An essential means to improve the situation is with strong malaria case management; this includes diagnosing suspected patients with a confirmatory test, either with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or microscopy, prompt and correct treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), and proper case registration (track). In 2011, the United States President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) launched a country-wide programme to improve malaria case management through the provision of regular training and supervision at different levels of health care provision. An evaluation of malaria testing, treatment and registration practices in eight provinces, and at health facilities of various capacities, across Angola was conducted to assess progress of the national programme implementation.

NOT Open Access | Clinical Impact of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Testing at a US Children's Hospital

July 20, 2020 - 08:09 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Enane LA, Sullivan KV, Spyridakis E, Feemster KA
Reference: 
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Jul 13;9(3):298-304

Children who develop malaria after returning to a setting in which the disease is not endemic are at high risk for critical delays in diagnosis and initiation of antimalarial therapy. We assessed the clinical impact of the implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) on the management of children with malaria at an urban US children’s hospital that serves a large immigrant population.

Mass testing and treatment for malaria followed by weekly fever screening, testing and treatment in Northern Senegal: feasibility, cost and impact

July 15, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ruben O. Conner, Yakou Dieye, Caterina Guinovart, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:252, 14 July 2020

Population-wide interventions using malaria testing and treatment might decrease the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum infection and accelerate towards elimination. Questions remain about their effectiveness and evidence from different transmission settings is needed.

Keep the quality high: the benefits of lot testing for the quality control of malaria rapid diagnostic tests

July 14, 2020 - 09:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandra Incardona, David Bell, Xavier C. Ding, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:247, 13 July 2020

The production and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has risen dramatically over the past 20 years. In view of weak or non-existing in vitro diagnostics (IVD) regulations and post-marketing surveillance (PMS) systems in malaria endemic countries, the World Health Organization, later joined by the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, established an independent, centralized performance evaluation and Lot Testing (LT) programme to safeguard against poor quality of RDTs being distributed through the public health sector of malaria endemic countries. RDT performances and manufacturer quality management systems have evolved over the past decade raising questions about the future need for a centralized LT programme.

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax

July 14, 2020 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Punitha Mahendran, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Amirah Amir, Xiao-Teng Ching and Yee-Ling Lau
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:241, 10 July 2020

Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant Plasmodium species that cause malaria in Malaysia and play a role in asymptomatic malaria disease transmission in Malaysia. The diagnostic tools available to diagnose malaria, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT), are less sensitive at detecting lower parasite density. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), which has been shown to have higher sensitivity at diagnosing malaria, allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. The aim of this study is to develop and use a duplex ddPCR assay for the detection of P. knowlesi and P. vivax, and compare this method to nested PCR and qPCR.

Evidence for Reduced Malaria Parasite Population after Application of Population-Level Antimalarial Drug Strategies in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniels RF, Schaffner SF, Bennett A, Porter TR, Yukich JO, Mulube C, Mambwe B, Mwenda MC, Chishimba S, Bridges DJ, Moonga H, Hamainza B, Chizema Kawesha E, Miller JM, Steketee RW, Wirth DF, Eisele TP, Hartl DL, Volkman SK
Reference: 
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–8

A mass drug administration trial was carried out in Southern Province, Zambia, between 2014 and 2016, in conjunction with a standard of care package that included improved surveillance, increased access to malaria case management, and sustained high levels of vector control coverage. This was preceded by mass test and treatment in the same area from 2011 to 2013. Concordant decreases in malaria prevalence in Southern Province and deaths attributed to malaria in Zambia over this time suggest that these strategies successfully reduced the malaria burden.

Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs

August 13, 2014 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hasselback L, Crawford J, Chaluco T, Rajagopal S, Prosser W, Watson N
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2014, 13 :295 (2 August 2014)

A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province.

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