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antimalarial resistance

NOT Open Access | Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Investigation of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Resistance

September 8, 2021 - 17:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Moriarty LF, Nkoli PM, Kahunu GM, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210214

Routine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored.

NOT Open Access | Current and emerging strategies to combat antimalarial resistance

August 10, 2021 - 18:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rasmussen C, Alonso P, Ringwald P
Reference: 
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Aug 5

Since the spread of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the 1960s, recommendations have been made on how to respond to antimalarial resistance. Only with the advent of artemisinin partial resistance were large scale efforts made in the Greater Mekong Subregion to carry out recommendations in a coordinated and well-funded manner. Independent emergence of parasites partially resistant to artemisinins has now been reported in Rwanda.

Targeted deep amplicon sequencing of antimalarial resistance markers in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cameroon

May 5, 2021 - 10:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
L'Episcopia M, Kelley J, Dongho BGD, Patel D, Schmedes S, Ravishankar S, Perrotti E, Modiano D, Lucchi NW, Russo G, Talundzic E, Severini C
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 30:S1201-9712(21)00393-3

Recent studies show the first emergence of the R561H artemisinin-associated resistance marker in Africa, which highlights the importance of continued molecular surveillance to assess the selection and spread of this and other drug resistance markers in the region.

Temporal evolution of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance genotypes and genetic diversity in response to a decade of increased interventions against Plasmodium falciparum in northern Ghana

March 18, 2021 - 09:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lucas N. Amenga-Etego, Victor Asoala, Godfred Agongo, Christopher Jacob, Sonia Goncalves, Gordon A. Awandare, Kirk A. Rockett and Dominic Kwiatkowski
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:152, 17 March 2021

Anti-malarial drug resistance remains a key concern for the global fight against malaria. In Ghana sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is used for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy and combined with amodiaquine for Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) during the high malaria season. Thus, surveillance of molecular markers of SP resistance is important to guide decision-making for these interventions in Ghana.

The risk of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia after P. falciparum malaria: An individual patient data meta-analysis from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network

November 25, 2020 - 12:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hossain MS, Commons RJ, Price RN, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Nov 19;17(11):e1003393

There is a high risk of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia following treatment of falciparum malaria. Our study aimed to quantify this risk and the associated determinants using an individual patient data meta-analysis in order to identify populations in which a policy of universal radical cure, combining artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with a hypnozoitocidal antimalarial drug, would be beneficial.

A cautionary note on the use of unsupervised machine learning algorithms to characterise malaria parasite population structure from genetic distance matrices

October 13, 2020 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson JA, Taylor AR, Ashley EA, Dondorp A, Buckee CO, White NJ, Holmes CC
Reference: 
PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 9;16(10):e1009037

Genetic surveillance of malaria parasites supports malaria control programmes, treatment guidelines and elimination strategies. Surveillance studies often pose questions about malaria parasite ancestry (e.g. how antimalarial resistance has spread) and employ statistical methods that characterise parasite population structure. Many of the methods used to characterise structure are unsupervised machine learning algorithms which depend on a genetic distance matrix, notably principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC).

Knowing the enemy: genetics to track antimalarial resistance

July 20, 2020 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ménard D, Mayor A
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 14:S1473-3099(20)30271-1

In the absence of an effective vaccine, the efficacy of antimalarial chemotherapies  underpins the success of malaria control programmes. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which combine fast-acting artemisinin derivatives and longer-acting  partner drugs, are the mainstay of treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in endemic regions.

Identification of Mutations in Antimalarial Resistance Gene Kelch13 from plasmodium falciparum Isolates in Kano, Nigeria

June 2, 2020 - 09:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abubakar UF, Adam R, Mukhtar MM, Muhammad A, Yahuza AA, Ibrahim SS
Reference: 
Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 27; 5 (2):E85

Malaria control relies on first-line treatments that use artemisinin-combination therapies (ACT). Unfortunately, mutations in the plasmodium falciparum kelch13 gene result in delayed parasite clearance. Research on what is causing ACT failure is non-existent in northwestern Nigeria. Thus, the presence of mutations in kelch13 in P. falciparum isolates from Kano, Nigeria was investigated in this study.

The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network Clinical Trials Publication Library: A Live, Open-Access Database of Plasmodium Treatment Efficacy Trials

May 21, 2020 - 06:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Takata J, Sondo P, Humphreys GS, Burrow R, Maguire B, Hossain MS, Das D, Commons RJ, Price RN, Guerin PJ
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 18

Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs poses a serious threat to malaria control. The WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) aims to provide a collaborative platform to support the global malaria research effort. Here, we describe the “WWARN clinical trials publication library,” an open-access, up-to-date resource to streamline the synthesis of antimalarial safety and efficacy data.

The impact of antimalarial resistance on the genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum in the DRC

May 4, 2020 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Verity R, Aydemir O, Juliano JJ, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Apr 30;11(1):2107

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) harbors 11% of global malaria cases, yet little is known about the spatial and genetic structure of the parasite population in that country. We sequence 2537 Plasmodium falciparum infections, including a nationally representative population sample from DRC and samples from surrounding countries, using molecular inversion probes - a high-throughput genotyping tool. We identify an east-west divide in haplotypes known to confer resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.

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