Irrigation schemes may result in subsequent changes in malaria disease dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of irrigation on malaria vector bionomics and transmission intensity is essential to develop new or alternative surveillance and control strategies to reduce or control malaria risk. This study was designed to assess the effect of rice irrigation on malaria vector bionomics and transmission intensity in the Gambella Region, Ethiopia.
Malaria is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and children are especially vulnerable. In 2019, an estimated 409,000 people died of malaria, most (274,000) were young children and 94% of the cases and deaths were in Africa. Prior studies in Ethiopia focused on the adult population and high transmission areas. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of malaria in children under five years in low transmission areas.
Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.
One of the major challenges in developing an effective vaccine against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum is genetic polymorphism within parasite population. Understanding the genetic polymorphism like block 2 region of merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene of P. falciparum enlighten mechanisms underlining disease pathology, identification of the parasite clone profile from the isolates, transmission intensity and potential deficiencies of the ongoing malaria control and elimination efforts in the locality. Detailed understanding of local genetic polymorphism is an input to pave the way for better management, control and elimination of malaria. The aim of this study was to detect the most frequent allelic variant of the msp-1 gene of P. falciparum clinical isolates from selected health facilities in Adama town and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia.
Rapid accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment is very important for malaria control. Light microscopy remains the “golden standard” method for malaria diagnosis. Diagnostic test method must have sufficient level of accuracy for detecting malaria parasites. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia.
In Africa, most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for falciparum malaria recognize histidine-rich protein 2 antigen. Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and 3 (pfhrp3) genes escape detection by these RDTs, but it is not known whether these deletions confer sufficient selective advantage to drive rapid population expansion. By studying blood samples from a cohort of 12,572 participants enroled in a prospective, cross-sectional survey along Ethiopia's borders with Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan using RDTs, PCR, an ultrasensitive bead-based immunoassay for antigen detection and next-generation sequencing, we estimate that histidine-rich protein 2-based RDTs would miss 9.7% (95% confidence interval 8.5-11.1) of P. falciparum malaria cases owing to pfhrp2 deletion.
The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of increasing concern in Ethiopia because of its potential implications for vector control failure. To better elucidate the specificity of resistance mechanisms and to facilitate the design of control strategies that minimize the likelihood of selecting for cross-resistance, a whole transcriptomic approach was used to explore gene expression patterns in a multi-insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
Ethiopia embarked on combating malaria with an aim to eliminate malaria from low transmission districts by 2030. A continuous monitoring of malaria prevalence in areas under elimination settings is important to evaluate the status of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of the currently existing malaria intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors in selected areas of Dembiya district.
Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.
The engagement of schools in malaria control is an emerging strategy. Little is known about the involvement of students in the development of malaria messages. This study evaluated the message content of primary school students’ malaria poems.