Atazanavir-ritonavir (ATVr)-based antiretroviral therapy and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection and malaria respectively. However, interaction of both drugs, with Cytochrome P 3A4 (CYP 3A4) isoenzyme, may spawn clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions. This study evaluated the effects of atazanavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine.
Plasmodium ovale is not usually the focus of most malaria research or intervention programmes and has lately been termed the neglected human malaria parasites. The parasite exists as two genetically distinct sympatric species namely P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri but information on the distribution of P. ovale sub-species is lacking in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was aimed at characterizing the P. ovale sub-species in isolates from symptomatic individuals in North-central Nigeria.
Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) remains a key cause of poor maternal and neonatal health outcomes, particularly in the African region. Two strategies globally promoted to address MiP require pregnant women in malaria-endemic regions to sleep under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and take at least three doses of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. Yet, several multilevel factors influence the effective uptake of these strategies. This study explored the factors for the poor uptake of IPTp and use of ITNs in lower socio-economic communities in Nigeria.
Entomological surveillance of local malaria vector populations is an important component of vector control and resistance management. In this study, the resistance profile and its possible mechanisms was characterised in a field population of the major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers state, in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Larvae collected in Port-Harcourt, were reared to adulthood and used for WHO bioassays. The population exhibited high resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT with mortalities of 6.7% ± 2.4, 37.5% ± 3.2 and 6.3% ± 4.1, respectively, but were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and malathion. Synergist bioassays with piperonylbutoxide (PBO) partially recovered susceptibility, with mortalities increasing to 53% ± 4, indicating probable role of CYP450s in permethrin resistance (χ2 = 29.48, P < 0.0001).
The rate of diagnostic testing for malaria is still very low in Nigeria despite the scale-up of malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) availability, following WHO's recommendation of universal diagnostic testing in 2010. We investigated whether a social group sensitisation and education intervention (social group intervention) and a social group intervention plus health-care provider training intervention would increase the demand (use or request, or both) for MRDTs among community members in Ebonyi state, Nigeria.
Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of any disease, whether infectious or otherwise, and is particularly pertinent for the diagnosis of malaria and, consequently, appropriate treatment.
The prevalence of malaria in pregnancy and its complications, remain very high in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the effects of a malaria health educational intervention based on the information-motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model on malaria preventive practices and pregnancy outcomes.
In 2005, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health revised the treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This policy change discouraged the use of Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the second-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, SP is used as an intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in children aged 3-59 months. There have been increasing reports of SP resistance especially in the non-pregnant population in Nigeria, thus, the need to continually monitor the efficacy of SP as IPTp and SMC by estimating polymorphisms in dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes associated with SP resistance.
Characterizing the genetic diversity of malaria parasite populations in different endemic settings (from low to high) could be helpful in determining the effectiveness of malaria interventions. This study compared Plasmodium falciparum parasite population diversity from two sites with low (pre-elimination) and high transmission in Senegal and Nigeria, respectively.
Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).