Plasmodium sporozoites are injected into the skin as mosquitoes probe for blood.
Sensitive techniques for the detection of Plasmodium (Aconoidasida: Plasmodiidae) sporozoites in field‐collected malaria vectors are essential for the correct assessment of risk for malaria transmission.
Beyond the first few hours after injection, sporozoite-derived Plasmodium 18S rRNA was not detected in peripheral blood.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) plays an important role in antigen-specific adaptive immunity against Plasmodium sporozoites, and this requirement allows for a new approach to developing an effective malaria vaccine.
Parasites causing malaria need to migrate in order to penetrate tissue barriers and enter host cells.
In this study, large secondary doses of unpurified sporozoites unexpectedly led to contraction of sporozoite-specific CD8+ T cell responses in sporozoite-primed mice. While sporozoite-primed CD8+ T cells can alternatively be expanded by secondary exposure to Listeria monocytogenes expressing recombinant Plasmodium antigens, such expansion was potently inhibited by co-injection of large doses of unpurified sporozoites and by uninfected salivary glands alone.
In this study, we systematically compared infectivity of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites isolated from the mosquito hemocoel and salivary glands. Hemocoel sporozoites display a lower proportion of gliding motility, but develop into liver stages when added to cultured hepatoma cells or after intravenous injection into mice.
This review discusses the early history of imaging studies, and focuses on the role that imaging has played in enabling a better understanding of both the induction and effector functions of the immune responses against sporozoites.