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Vector genetics, insecticide resistance and gene drives: An agent-based modeling approach to evaluate malaria transmission and elimination

August 18, 2020 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Selvaraj P, Wenger EA, Bridenbecker D, Windbichler N, Russell JR, Gerardin J, Bever CA, Nikolov M
PLoS Comput Biol. 2020 Aug 14;16(8):e1008121

Vector control has been a key component in the fight against malaria for decades, and chemical insecticides are critical to the success of vector control programs worldwide. However, increasing resistance to insecticides threatens to undermine these efforts. Understanding the evolution and propagation of resistance is thus imperative to mitigating loss of intervention effectiveness.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia in Odisha, India: A Challenge to Malaria Elimination

August 17, 2020 - 13:08 -- NOT Open Access
Kumari P, Sinha S, Gahtori R, Yadav CP, Pradhan MM, Rahi M, Pande V, Anvikar AR
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 10

The prevalence of malaria in India is decreasing, but it remains a major concern for public health administration. The role of submicroscopic malaria and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia and their persistence is being explored. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Kandhamal district of Odisha (India) during May-June 2017. Blood samples were collected from 1897 individuals for screening of asymptomatic parasitemia. Samples were screened using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and examined microscopically for Plasmodium species.

NOT Open Access | Health policy impacts on malaria transmission in Costa Rica

August 3, 2020 - 16:13 -- NOT Open Access
Chaves LF, Ramírez Rojas M, Prado M, Garcés JL, Salas Peraza D, Marín Rodríguez R
Parasitology. 2020 Aug;147(9):999-1007.

Costa Rica is near malaria elimination. This achievement has followed shifts in malaria health policy. Here, we evaluate the impacts that different health policies have had on malaria transmission in Costa Rica from 1913 to 2018. We identified regime shifts and used regression models to measure the impact of different health policies on malaria transmission in Costa Rica using annual case records.

Moving towards malaria elimination in southern Mozambique: Cost and cost-effectiveness of mass drug administration combined with intensified malaria control

July 7, 2020 - 13:41 -- Open Access
Cirera L, Galatas B, Alonso S, Paaijmans K, Mamuquele M, Martí-Soler H, Guinovart C, Munguambe H, Luis F, Nhantumbo H, Montañà J, Bassat Q, Candrinho B, Rabinovich R, Macete E, Aide P, Alonso P, Saúte F, Sicuri E
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0235631

As new combinations of interventions aiming at interrupting malaria transmission are under evaluation, understanding the associated economic costs and benefits is critical for decision-making. This study assessed the economic cost and cost-effectiveness of the Magude project, a malaria elimination initiative implemented in a district in southern Mozambique (i.e. Magude) between August 2015–June 2018. This project piloted a combination of two mass drug administration (MDA) rounds per year for two consecutive years, annual rounds of universal indoor residual spraying (IRS) and a strengthened surveillance and response system on the back of universal long-lasting insecticide treated net (LLIN) coverage and routine case management implemented by the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP). Although local transmission was not interrupted, the project achieved large reductions in the burden of malaria in the target district.

Moving from Malaria Burden Reduction toward Elimination: An Evaluation of Mass Drug Administration in Southern Province, Zambia

July 7, 2020 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Miller JM, Eisele TP, Fraser MS, Lewis MT, Slutsker L, Chizema Kawesha E
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 00(0), 2020, pp. 1–4

From December 2014 to February 2016, a cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out in 60 health facility catchment areas along Lake Kariba in Zambia's Southern Province. The trial sought to evaluate the impact of four rounds of a mass drug administration (MDA) intervention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) or focal MDA with DHAP at the household level compared with a control population that received the standard of care.

Malaria Risk Map Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis along Yunnan Border During the Pre-elimination Period

July 1, 2020 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Zhao X, Thanapongtharm W, Lawawirojwong S, Wei C, Tang Y, Zhou Y, Sun X, Cui L, Sattabongkot J, Kaewkungwal J
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 29

In moving toward malaria elimination, finer scale malaria risk maps are required to identify hotspots for implementing surveillance–response activities, allocating resources, and preparing health facilities based on the needs and necessities at each specific area. This study aimed to demonstrate the use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in conjunction with geographic information systems (GISs) to create a spatial model and risk maps by integrating satellite remote-sensing and malaria surveillance data from 18 counties of Yunnan Province along the China–Myanmar border.

Comprehensive competency assessment of malaria microscopists and laboratory diagnostic service capacity in districts stratified for malaria elimination in Ethiopia

June 29, 2020 - 16:12 -- Open Access
Nega D, Abebe A, Abera A, Gidey B, G/Tsadik A, Tasew G
PLoS One. 2020 Jun 25; 15(6):e0235151

Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) Ethiopia achieved significant declines in malaria mortality and incidence and has recently launched malaria elimination in selected low transmission settings. Successful malaria elimination calls for rapid and accurate diagnosis of cases so that the patients can promptly be treated before the occurrence of transmission. Therefore, this study assessed the competency of malaria microscopists using panal slides, and laboratory service availability and readiness in terms of supplies and equipments in malaria elimination targeted districts in Ethiopia.

Evaluation of bio-efficacy and durability of long-lasting insecticidal nets distributed by malaria elimination programme in Eastern India

May 25, 2020 - 08:38 -- Open Access
Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Amol Vasantrao Keshaowar, Sonia Thankachy, Dilip Kumar Panigrahi, Premalata Acharya, Vijayakumar Balakrishnan and Ashwani Kumar
Malaria Journal 2020 19:186, 24 May 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most favoured vector control tools worldwide. Timely monitoring and evaluation of LLINs is important to sustain the impact of this promising vector control method and for replacement of worn-out and those rendered ineffective. During the mid-2017, LLINs were distributed by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) in high malaria endemic districts of the eastern coastal state of Odisha. The study was carried out to assess the field performance of the LLINs post 30 months of distribution in Koraput district of Odisha state.

Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Mitigation Steps Provide a Blueprint for Malaria Control and Elimination

May 12, 2020 - 17:49 -- Open Access
Rahi M, Das P, Sharma A.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 May 7

Most countries around the world have responded promptly to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) challenge by adopting considered and scientifically guided strategies for its containment. However, the situation is more complex for nations where malaria is endemic, as they now have the additional burden of COVID-19. In such nations, the healthcare systems are either in the preparatory or containment phase of the current pandemic.

Retrospective data analyses of social and environmental determinants of malaria control for elimination prospects in Eritrea

March 18, 2020 - 14:30 -- Open Access
Mihreteab S, Lubinda J, Zhao B, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Goitom A, Shad MY, Haque U
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Mar 12;13(1):126

The present study focuses on both long- and short-term malaria transmission in Eritrea and investigates the risk factors. Annual aggregates of information on malaria cases, deaths, diagnostics and control interventions from 2001 to 2008 and monthly reported data from 2009 to 2017 were obtained from the National Malaria Control Programme. We used a generalized linear regression model to examine the associations among total malaria cases, death, insecticide-treated net coverage, indoor residual spraying and climatic parameters.


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