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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria elimination

October 31, 2020 - 09:28 -- Open Access
Zawawi A, Alghanmi M, Alsaady I, Gattan H, Zakai H, Couper K
Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2020 Oct 20:e00187

SARS-CoV-2 has spread throughout the world and become the cause of the infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As low- and middle-income countries shift increasingly to focus on identifying and treating COVID-19, questions are emerging about the impact this shift in focus will have on ongoing efforts to control other infectious diseases, such as malaria.

Updates on malaria epidemiology and profile in Cabo Verde from 2010 to 2019: the goal of elimination

October 27, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Adilson José DePina, Gillian Stresman, Helga Sofia Baptista Barros, António Lima Moreira, Abdoulaye Kane Dia, Ullardina Domingos Furtado, Ousmane Faye, Ibrahima Seck and El Hadji Amadou Niang
Malaria Journal 2020 19:380, 23 October 2020

Located in West Africa, Cabo Verde is an archipelago consisting of nine inhabited islands. Malaria has been endemic since the settlement of the islands during the sixteenth century and is poised to achieve malaria elimination in January 2021. The aim of this research is to characterize the trends in malaria cases from 2010 to 2019 in Cabo Verde as the country transitions from endemic transmission to elimination and prevention of reintroduction phases.

Integrative genomic analysis reveals mechanisms of immune evasion in P. falciparum malaria

October 13, 2020 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Dieng MM, Diawara A, Idaghdour Y, et al.
Nat Commun. 2020 Oct 9;11(1):5093

The mechanisms behind the ability of Plasmodium falciparum to evade host immune system are poorly understood and are a major roadblock in achieving malaria elimination. Here, we use integrative genomic profiling and a longitudinal pediatric cohort in Burkina Faso to demonstrate the role of post-transcriptional regulation in host immune response in malaria.

A cautionary note on the use of unsupervised machine learning algorithms to characterise malaria parasite population structure from genetic distance matrices

October 13, 2020 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Watson JA, Taylor AR, Ashley EA, Dondorp A, Buckee CO, White NJ, Holmes CC
PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 9;16(10):e1009037

Genetic surveillance of malaria parasites supports malaria control programmes, treatment guidelines and elimination strategies. Surveillance studies often pose questions about malaria parasite ancestry (e.g. how antimalarial resistance has spread) and employ statistical methods that characterise parasite population structure. Many of the methods used to characterise structure are unsupervised machine learning algorithms which depend on a genetic distance matrix, notably principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC).

Malaria case management and elimination readiness in health facilities of five districts of Madagascar in 2018

October 6, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Anjoli Anand, Rachel Favero, Jean-Pierre Rakotovao, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:351, 1 October 2020

Madagascar’s Malaria National Strategic Plan 2018–2022 calls for progressive malaria elimination beginning in low-incidence districts (< 1 case/1000 population). Optimizing access to prompt diagnosis and quality treatment and improving outbreak detection and response will be critical to success. A malaria elimination readiness assessment (MERA) was performed in health facilities (HFs) of selected districts targeted for malaria elimination.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of malaria rapid diagnostic test in the elimination setting

October 1, 2020 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Du YQ, Ling XX, Jin JJ, Zhou HY, Zhu S, Zhu GD, Wang W, Cao J, Huang JY
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Sep 29;9(1):135

As more and more countries approaching the goal of malaria elimination, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) was recomendated to be a diagnostic strategy to achieve and maintain the statute of malaria free, as it’s less requirments on equipment and experitise than microscopic examination. But there are very few economic evaluations to confirm whether RDT was cost-effective in the setting of malaria elimination. This research aimed to offer evidence for helping decision making on malaria diagnosis strategy.

Will More of the Same Achieve Malaria Elimination? Results from an Integrated Macroeconomic Epidemiological Demographic Model

September 23, 2020 - 09:32 -- Open Access
Smith RD, Keogh-Brown MR, Chico RM, Bretscher MT, Drakeley C, Jensen HT
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 21

Historic levels of funding have reduced the global burden of malaria in recent years. Questions remain, however, as to whether scaling up interventions, in parallel with economic growth, has made malaria elimination more likely today than previously. The consequences of "trying but failing" to eliminate malaria are also uncertain. Reduced malaria exposure decreases the acquisition of semi-immunity during childhood, a necessary phase of the immunological transition that occurs on the pathway to malaria elimination.

Demonstration of indigenous malaria elimination through Track-Test-Treat-Track (T4) strategy in a Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

September 17, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Praveen K. Bharti, Harsh Rajvanshi, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:339, 17 September 2020

Many malaria endemic countries are heading towards malaria elimination through the use of case management and vector control strategies, which employ surveillance, improving access to early diagnosis, prompt treatment., and integrated vector control measures. There is a consensus that elimination of malaria is feasible when rapid detection and prompt treatment is combined with mosquito-human contact interruption in an efficient and sustainable manner at community levels. This paper describes results of an integrated case management and vector control strategy for reducing malaria cases in 1233 villages over 3 years in district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Vector control for malaria elimination in Botswana: progress, gaps and opportunities

August 27, 2020 - 08:11 -- Open Access
Tefo Kesaobaka Kgoroebutswe, Ntebaleng Makate, Ulrike Fillinger, Mandla Mpho, Godira Segoea, Peter Onyango Sangoro, Clifford Maina Mutero, Emmanuel Chanda, Davies Ntebela, Mpho Mogopa, Tjantilili Mosweunyane and Theresia Estomih Nkya
Malaria Journal 2020 19:301, 26 August 2020

Botswana has in the recent past 10 years made tremendous progress in the control of malaria and this informed re-orientation from malaria control to malaria elimination by the year 2020. This progress is attributed to improved case management, and scale-up of key vector control interventions; indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, insecticide resistance, outdoor biting and resting, and predisposing human behaviour, such as staying outdoors or sleeping outdoors without the use of protective measures, pose a challenge to the realization of the full impact of LLINs and IRS.

A multiphase program for malaria elimination in southern Mozambique (the Magude project): A before-after study

August 18, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Galatas B, Saúte F, Martí-Soler H, Aide P, et al.
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 14;17(8):e1003227

Malaria eradication remains the long-term vision of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, whether malaria elimination is feasible in areas of stable transmission in sub-Saharan Africa with currently available tools remains a subject of debate. This study aimed to evaluate a multiphased malaria elimination project to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in a rural district of southern Mozambique.


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