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Genetic variation at the Cyp6m2 putative insecticide resistance locus in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

May 26, 2021 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Martin G. Wagah, Petra Korlević, Christopher Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Mara K. N. Lawniczak and Alex Makunin
Malaria Journal 2021 20:234, 25 May 2021

The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.

Microbiota identified from preserved Anopheles

May 26, 2021 - 09:20 -- Open Access
Bianca E Silva, Zvifadzo Matsena Zingoni, Lizette L. Koekemoer and Yael L. Dahan-Moss
Malaria Journal 2021 20:230, 22 May 2021

Mosquito species from the Anopheles gambiae complex and the Anopheles funestus group are dominant African malaria vectors. Mosquito microbiota play vital roles in physiology and vector competence. Recent research has focused on investigating the mosquito microbiota, especially in wild populations. Wild mosquitoes are preserved and transported to a laboratory for analyses. Thus far, microbial characterization post-preservation has been investigated in only Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens. Investigating the efficacy of cost-effective preservatives has also been limited to AllProtect reagent, ethanol and nucleic acid preservation buffer. This study characterized the microbiota of African Anopheles vectors: Anopheles arabiensis (member of the An. gambiae complex) and An. funestus (member of the An. funestus group), preserved on silica desiccant and RNAlater® solution.

Bulk‐up synchronization of successive larval cohorts of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii through temperature reduction at early larval stages: effect on emergence rate, body size and mating success

February 3, 2021 - 15:45 -- Open Access
Qaswa Zubair, Holly Matthews, Seynabou Sougoufara, Fatima Mujeeb, Simon Ashall, Fred Aboagye-Antwi and Frédéric Tripet
Malaria Journal 2021 20:67, 2 February 2021

Malaria persists as a huge medical and economic burden. Although the number of cases and death rates have reduced in recent years, novel interventions are a necessity if such gains are to be maintained. Alternative methods to target mosquito vector populations that involve the release of large numbers genetically modified mosquitoes are in development. However, their successful introduction will require innovative strategies to bulk-up mosquito numbers and improve mass rearing protocols for Anopheles mosquitoes.

Anopheles gambiae Genome Conservation as a Resource for Rational Gene Drive Target Site Selection

January 31, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Kranjc N, Crisanti A, Nolan T, Bernardini F
Insects. 2021 Jan 23;12(2):97

The increase in molecular tools for the genetic engineering of insect pests and disease vectors, such as Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria, has led to an unprecedented investigation of the genomic landscape of these organisms. The understanding of genome variability in wild mosquito populations is of primary importance for vector control strategies. This is particularly the case for gene drive systems, which look to introduce genetic traits into a population by targeting specific genomic regions. Gene drive targets with functional or structural constraints are highly desirable as they are less likely to tolerate mutations that prevent targeting by the gene drive and consequent failure of the technology.

Laboratory and microcosm experiments reveal contrasted adaptive responses to ammonia and water mineralisation in aquatic stages of the sibling species Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii

January 14, 2021 - 08:47 -- Open Access
Akpodiete NO, Tripet F
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 6;14(1):17

The sibling species of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and Anopheles coluzzii co-exist in many parts of West Africa and are thought to have recently diverged through a process of ecological speciation with gene flow. Divergent larval ecological adaptations, resulting in Genotype-by-Environment (G × E) interactions, have been proposed as important drivers of speciation in these species. In West Africa, An. coluzzii tends to be associated with permanent man-made larval habitats such as irrigated rice fields, which are typically more eutrophic and mineral and ammonia-rich than the temporary rain pools exploited by An. gambiae (s.s.)

Single blinded semi-field evaluation of MAÏA® topical repellent ointment compared to unformulated 20% DEET against Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Aedes aegypti in Tanzania

January 9, 2021 - 12:13 -- Open Access
Emmanuel Mbuba, Olukayode G. Odufuwa, Frank C. Tenywa, Rose Philipo, Mgeni M. Tambwe, Johnson K. Swai, Jason D. Moore and Sarah J. Moore
Malaria Journal 2021 20:12, 6 January 2021

N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) topical mosquito repellents are effective personal protection tools. However, DEET-based repellents tend to have low consumer acceptability because they are cosmetically unappealing. More attractive formulations are needed to encourage regular user compliance. This study evaluated the protective efficacy and protection duration of a new topical repellent ointment containing 15% DEET, MAÏA® compared to 20% DEET in ethanol using malaria and dengue mosquito vectors in Bagamoyo Tanzania.

Evidence for Divergent Selection on Immune Genes between the African Malaria Vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae

December 25, 2020 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Lee Y, Souvannaseng L, Collier TC, Main BJ, Norris LC, Fofana A, Traoré SF, Cornel AJ, Luckhart S, Lanzaro GC
Insects. 2020 Dec 18;11(12):E893

During their life cycles, microbes infecting mosquitoes encounter components of the mosquito anti-microbial innate immune defenses. Many of these immune responses also mediate susceptibility to malaria parasite infection. In West Africa, the primary malaria vectors are Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae sensu stricto, which is subdivided into the Bamako and Savanna sub-taxa. Here, we performed whole genome comparisons of the three taxa as well as genotyping of 333 putatively functional SNPs located in 58 immune signaling genes.

A mating-induced reproductive gene promotes Anopheles tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum infection

December 23, 2020 - 08:29 -- Open Access
Marcenac P, Shaw WR, Kakani EG, Mitchell SN, South A, Werling K, Marrogi E, Abernathy DG, Yerbanga RS, Dabiré RK, Diabaté A, Lefèvre T, Catteruccia F
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Dec 21;16(12):e1008908

Anopheles mosquitoes have transmitted Plasmodium parasites for millions of years, yet it remains unclear whether they suffer fitness costs to infection. Here we report that the fecundity of virgin and mated females of two important vectors-Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi-is not affected by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, demonstrating that these human malaria parasites do not inflict this reproductive cost on their natural mosquito hosts.

Reduced human-biting preferences of the African malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in an urban context: controlled, competitive host-preference experiments in Tanzania

November 24, 2020 - 13:49 -- Open Access
Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Athuman Muhili, Dennis J. Massue, Marcel Tanner, Silas Majambere, Gerry F. Killen and Nicodem J. Govella
Malaria Journal 2020 19:418, 20 November 2020

Host preference is a critical determinant of human exposure to vector-borne infections and the impact of vector control interventions. Widespread use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) across sub-Saharan Africa, which protect humans against mosquitoes, may select for altered host preference traits of malaria vectors over the long term. Here, the host preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) were experimentally assessed in the field, using direct host-preference assays in two distinct ecological settings in Tanzania.

NOT Open Access | Disease Vector Relative Spatio-Temporal Abundances to Water Bodies and Thermal Fitness Across Malaria Endemic Semi-Arid Areas

October 28, 2020 - 10:33 -- NOT Open Access
Buxton M, Wasserman RJ, Nyamukondiwa C
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 27:tjaa221

The biophysical environment plays an important role in the spatio-temporal abundance and distribution of mosquitoes. This has implications for the spread of vectors and diseases they cause across diverse landscapes. Here, we assessed vector mosquito abundances in relation to large water bodies, from three malaria districts in a semi-arid environment.


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