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resistance

NOT Open Access | Host-targeted Interventions as an Exciting Opportunity to Combat Malaria

July 6, 2021 - 14:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vijayan K, Wei L, Glennon EKK, Mattocks C, Bourgeois N, Staker B, Kaushansky A
Reference: 
Chem Rev. 2021 Jul 1

Terminal and benign diseases alike in adults, children, pregnant women, and others are successfully treated by pharmacological inhibitors that target human enzymes. Despite extensive global efforts to fight malaria, the disease continues to be a massive worldwide health burden, and new interventional strategies are needed. Current drugs and vector control strategies have contributed to the reduction in malaria deaths over the past 10 years, but progress toward eradication has waned in recent years.

Plasmodium falciparum phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile during the emergence of Piperaquine resistance in Northeastern Thailand

June 30, 2021 - 09:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boonyalai N, Thamnurak C, Gaywee J, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 28;11(1):13419

Malaria remains a public health problem in Thailand, especially along its borders where highly mobile populations can contribute to persistent transmission. This study aimed to determine resistant genotypes and phenotypes of 112 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients along the Thai-Cambodia border during 2013-2015. The majority of parasites harbored a pfmdr1-Y184F mutation. A single pfmdr1 copy number had CVIET haplotype of amino acids 72-76 of pfcrt and no pfcytb mutations. All isolates had a single pfk13 point mutation (R539T, R539I, or C580Y), and increased % survival in the ring-stage survival assay (except for R539I).

Population modification strategies for malaria vector control are uniquely resilient to observed levels of gene drive resistance alleles

June 22, 2021 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lanzaro GC, Sánchez C HM, Collier TC, Marshall JM, James AA
Reference: 
Bioessays. 2021 Jun 20:e2000282

Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA)-based gene drive systems are expected to play a transformative role in malaria elimination efforts., whether through population modification, in which the drive system contains parasite-refractory genes, or population suppression, in which the drive system induces a severe fitness load resulting in population decline or extinction.

NOT Open Access | Bold measures to accelerate malaria elimination

June 22, 2021 - 14:07 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Price RN
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 17:S1473-3099(21)00003-7

In the Greater Mekong subregion, intense drug pressure and indiscriminate use of poor-quality antimalarial drugs has led to the emergence of antimalarial resistance to all widely used drugs, including the artemisinin derivatives.

NOT Open Access | Suspected Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artesunate in Cameroon: A case report

June 16, 2021 - 09:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nkwabong E, Tseunwo C, Nkene Mawamba Y
Reference: 
Trop Doct. 2021 Jun 9:494755211011899

Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The first-line treatment for severe malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is parenteral artesunate, according to WHO recommendations. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate has not yet been noted in our country. We report a case highly suspicious of such.

NOT Open Access | High proportion of genome-wide homology and increased pre-treatment pvcrt levels in Plasmodium vivax late recurrences: a chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study

May 26, 2021 - 09:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rovira-Vallbona E, Van Hong N, Rosanas-Urgell A, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 May 24:AAC.00095-21

Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most endemic countries. Monitoring P.vivax CQ resistance (CQR) is critical but remains challenged by the difficulty to distinguish real treatment failure from reinfection or liver relapse. Therapeutic efficacy of CQ against uncomplicated P.vivax malaria was evaluated in Gia Lai province, Vietnam. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled and followed-up for 42 days using microscopy and (RT)qPCR.

Multiple Resistance Mechanisms to Pyrethroids Insecticides in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Population From Mali, West Africa

April 29, 2021 - 07:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Keïta M, Sogoba N, Kané F, Traoré B, Zeukeng F, Coulibaly B, Sodio AB, Traoré SF, Djouaka R, Doumbia S
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27;223(Supplement_2):S81-S90

Insecticide-based vector control is responsible for reducing malaria mortality and morbidity. Its success depends on a better knowledge of the vector, its distribution, and resistance status to the insecticides used. In this paper, we assessed Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (A gambiae s.l.) population resistance to pyrethroids in different ecological settings.

NOT Open Access | Antimalarial drug resistance markers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative adults with asymptomatic malaria infections in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

April 7, 2021 - 12:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chijioke-Nwauche I, Oguike MC, Nwauche CA, Beshir KB, Sutherland CJ
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 6:trab061

In Nigeria, indiscriminate use of antimalarial drugs may contribute to the threat of drug resistance, but this has not been evaluated among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

NOT Open Access | Spatial and molecular mapping of Pfkelch13 gene polymorphism in Africa in the era of emerging Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin: a systematic review

April 1, 2021 - 09:03 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kayiba NK, Yobi DM, Speybroeck N, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Apr;21(4):e82-e92

The spread of Plasmodium falciparum isolates carrying mutations in the kelch13 (Pfkelch13) gene associated with artemisinin resistance (PfART-R) in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts. Emergence of PfART-R in Africa would result in a major public health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the frequency and spatial distribution of Pfkelch13 mutants in Africa, including mutants linked to PfART-R in southeast Asia. Seven databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, African Journal Online, African Index Medicus, Bioline, and Web of Science) for relevant articles about polymorphisms of the Pfkelch13 gene in Africa before January, 2019.

NOT Open Access | Multi-omics approaches to improve malaria therapy

April 1, 2021 - 08:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou M, Varol A, Efferth T
Reference: 
Pharmacol Res. 2021 Mar 22:105570

Malaria contributes to the most widespread infectious diseases worldwide. Even though current drugs are commercially available, the ever-increasing drug resistance problem by malaria parasites poses new challenges in malaria therapy. Hence, searching for efficient therapeutic strategies is of high priority in malaria control. In recent years, multi-omics technologies have been extensively applied to provide a more holistic view of functional principles and dynamics of biological mechanisms. We briefly review multi-omics technologies and focus on recent malaria progress conducted with the help of various omics methods.

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