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long-lasting insecticidal nets

Multiple insecticide resistance target sites in adult field strains of An. gambiae (s.l.) from southeastern Senegal

November 14, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Diouf EH, Niang EHA, Samb B, Diagne CT, Diouf M, Konaté A, Dia I, Faye O, Konaté L
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Nov 11;13(1):567

High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of vector control strategy in Senegal where insecticide resistance by the target vectors species is a great of concern. This study explores insecticide susceptibility profile and target-site mutations mechanisms within the Anopheles gambiae complex in southeastern Senegal.

Association between recent overnight travel and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets in rural Uganda: a prospective cohort study in Tororo

November 12, 2020 - 15:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Paul Krezanoski, John Rek, Victor Kamya, Adrienne Epstein, Philip J. Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey and Sarah G. Staedke
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:405, 11 November 2020

The burden of malaria in Uganda remains high, but has become increasingly heterogenous following intensified malaria control. Travel within Uganda is recognized as a risk factor for malaria, but behaviours associated with travel are not well-understood. To address this knowledge gap, malaria-relevant behaviours of cohort participants were assessed during travel and at home in Uganda.

New insecticide screening platforms indicate that Mitochondrial Complex I inhibitors are susceptible to cross-resistance by mosquito P450s that metabolise pyrethroids

October 7, 2020 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lees RS, Ismail HM, Logan RAE, Malone D, Davies R, Anthousi A, Adolfi A, Lycett GJ, Paine MJI
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 1;10(1):16232

Fenazaquin, pyridaben, tolfenpyrad and fenpyroximate are Complex I inhibitors offering a new mode of action for insecticidal malaria vector control. However, extended exposure to pyrethroid based products such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) has created mosquito populations that are largely pyrethroid-resistant, often with elevated levels of P450s that can metabolise and neutralise diverse substrates.

Rapid reduction of malaria transmission following the introduction of indoor residual spraying in previously unsprayed districts: an observational analysis of Mopti Region, Mali, in 2017

September 22, 2020 - 10:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:340, 19 September 2020

The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of Mali has had recent success decreasing malaria transmission using 3rd generation indoor residual spraying (IRS) products in areas with pyrethroid resistance, primarily in Ségou and Koulikoro Regions. In 2015, national survey data showed that Mopti Region had the highest under 5-year-old (u5) malaria prevalence at 54%—nearly twice the national average—despite having high access to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). Accordingly, in 2016 the NMCP and other stakeholders shifted IRS activities from Ségou to Mopti. Here, the results of a series of observational analyses utilizing routine malaria indicators to evaluate the impact of this switch are presented.

Attrition, physical integrity and insecticidal activity of long-lasting insecticidal nets in sub-Saharan Africa and modelling of their impact on vectorial capacity

September 1, 2020 - 09:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Olivier Briet, Hannah Koenker, Tom Smith, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:310, 28 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention and control intervention in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While LLINs are expected to last at least 3 years under normal use conditions, they can lose effectiveness because they fall out of use, are discarded, repurposed, physically damaged, or lose insecticidal activity. The contributions of these different interrelated factors to durability of nets and their protection against malaria have been unclear.

Risk factors for malaria infection prevalence and household vector density between mass distribution campaigns of long-lasting insecticidal nets in North-western Tanzania

August 24, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jacklin F. Mosha, Eliud Lukole, Natacha Protopopoff, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:297, 20 August 2020

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the most widely deployed vector control intervention in sub-Saharan Africa to prevent malaria. Recent reports indicate selection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance is widespread in mosquito vectors. This paper explores risk factors associated with malaria infection prevalence and vector density between mass distribution campaigns, changes in net coverage, and loss of protection in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Northwest Tanzania.

A multiphase program for malaria elimination in southern Mozambique (the Magude project): A before-after study

August 18, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Galatas B, Saúte F, Martí-Soler H, Aide P, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 14;17(8):e1003227

Malaria eradication remains the long-term vision of the World Health Organization (WHO). However, whether malaria elimination is feasible in areas of stable transmission in sub-Saharan Africa with currently available tools remains a subject of debate. This study aimed to evaluate a multiphased malaria elimination project to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in a rural district of southern Mozambique.

Combining next-generation indoor residual spraying and drug-based malaria control strategies: observational evidence of a combined effect in Mali

August 17, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph Wagman, Idrissa Cissé, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:293, 15 August 2020

Ségou Region in central Mali is an area of high malaria burden with seasonal transmission. The region reports high access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), though the principal vector, Anopheles gambiae, is resistant to pyrethroids. From 2011 until 2016, several high-burden districts of Ségou also received indoor residual spraying (IRS), though in 2014 concerns about pyrethroid resistance prompted a shift in IRS products to a micro-encapsulated formulation of the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Also in 2014, the region expanded a pilot programme to provide seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children aged 3–59 months in two districts. The timing of these decisions presented an opportunity to estimate the impact of both interventions, deployed individually and in combination, using quality-assured passive surveillance data.

The potential public health consequences of COVID-19 on malaria in Africa

August 10, 2020 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sherrard-Smith E, Hogan AB, Churcher TS, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Med. 2020 Aug 7

The burden of malaria is heavily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where cases and deaths associated with COVID-19 are rising1. In response, countries are implementing societal measures aimed at curtailing transmission of SARS-CoV-22,3. Despite these measures, the COVID-19 epidemic could still result in millions of deaths as local health facilities become overwhelmed4.

Decreased bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets and the resurgence of malaria in Papua New Guinea

July 21, 2020 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vinit R, Timinao L, Karl S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 20;11(1):3646

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria transmission outside of Africa. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are believed to have helped to reduce average malaria prevalence in PNG from 16% in 2008 to 1% in 2014. Since 2015 malaria in PNG has resurged significantly.

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