Thailand’s success in reducing malaria burden is built on the efficient “1-3-7” strategy applied to the surveillance system. The strategy is based on rapid case notification within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and targeted foci response to reduce the spread of Plasmodium spp. within 7 days. Autochthonous transmission is still occurring in the country, threatening the goal of reaching malaria-free status by 2024. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the 1-3-7 strategy and identify factors associated with presence of active foci.
Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of any disease, whether infectious or otherwise, and is particularly pertinent for the diagnosis of malaria and, consequently, appropriate treatment.
Malaria remains a worldwide threat, afflicting over 200 million people each year. The emergence of drug resistance against existing therapeutics threatens to destabilize global efforts aimed at controlling Plasmodium spp. parasites, which is expected to leave vast portions of humanity unprotected against the disease. To address this need, systematic testing of a fungal natural product extract library assembled through the University of Oklahoma Citizen Science Soil Collection Program has generated an initial set of bioactive extracts that exhibit potent antiplasmodial activity (EC50 < 0.30 μg/mL) and low levels of toxicity against human cells (less than 50% reduction in HepG2 growth at 25 μg/mL).
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are powerful mediators of protracted adaptive immunity to infection in peripheral organs. Harnessing TRM cells through vaccination hence promises unprecedented potential for protection against infection. A paramount example of this is malaria, a major infectious disease for which immunity through traditional vaccination strategies remains challenging. Liver TRM cells appear to be highly protective against malaria, and recent developments in our knowledge of the biology of these cells have defined promising, novel strategies for their induction.
Malaria parasites use the RhopH complex for erythrocyte invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As the member proteins are unique to Plasmodium spp., how they interact and traffic through subcellular sites to serve these essential functions is unknown. We show that RhopH is synthesized as a soluble complex of CLAG3, RhopH2, and RhopH3 with 1:1:1 stoichiometry.
In efforts to control malaria infection, the Democratic Republic of Congo has implemented several strategies. Studies assessing their efficiency mainly involved at-risk groups, especially children under five years of age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with Plasmodium spp. infection.
Infection with malarial parasites renders hosts more mosquito attractive than their uninfected, healthy, counterparts. One volatile organic compound, α-pinene, is associated with <I>Plasmodium</i> spp. infection in multiple studies and is a known mosquito attractant.
The genomes of Plasmodium spp. encode a number of different multigene families that are thought to play a critical role for survival. However, with the exception of the P. falciparum var genes, very little is known about the biological roles of any of the other multigene families. Using the recently developed Selection Linked Integration method, we have been able to activate the expression of a single member of a multigene family of our choice in Plasmodium spp. from its endogenous promoter.
Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, malaria has still not been eradicated. Metabolic interactions between the host and Plasmodium may present novel targets for malaria control, but such interactions are yet to be deciphered. An exploration of metabolic interactions between humans and two Plasmodium species by high-resolution metabolomics may provide fundamental insights that can aid the development of a new strategy for the control of malaria.
Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) contain a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle called the apicoplast, which houses essential metabolic pathways and is required throughout the parasite life cycle.