Host membrane remodeling is indispensable for viruses, bacteria, and parasites, to subvert the membrane barrier and obtain entry into cells. The malaria parasite Plasmodium spp. induces biophysical and molecular changes to the erythrocyte membrane through the ordered secretion of its apical organelles. To understand this process and address the debate regarding how the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) is formed, we developed an approach using lattice light-sheet microscopy, which enables the parasite interaction with the host cell membrane to be tracked and characterized during invasion.
Viral outbreaks present a particular challenge in countries in Africa where there is already a high incidence of other infectious diseases, including malaria which can alter immune responses to secondary infection. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one such problem; understanding how Plasmodium spp. and Ebolavirus (EBOV) interact is important for future outbreaks.
Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria infections, increasing the risk of maternal–fetal complications, mainly in high-endemicity areas. However, few studies of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) have been carried out in Latin America, a region with low endemicity and transmission of both, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Despite the high malaria burden in Venezuela in the last years, no recent studies of MiP have been conducted. Hence, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in southern Venezuela are described herein.
Thailand’s success in reducing malaria burden is built on the efficient “1-3-7” strategy applied to the surveillance system. The strategy is based on rapid case notification within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and targeted foci response to reduce the spread of Plasmodium spp. within 7 days. Autochthonous transmission is still occurring in the country, threatening the goal of reaching malaria-free status by 2024. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the 1-3-7 strategy and identify factors associated with presence of active foci.
Correct diagnosis is key to appropriate treatment of any disease, whether infectious or otherwise, and is particularly pertinent for the diagnosis of malaria and, consequently, appropriate treatment.
Malaria remains a worldwide threat, afflicting over 200 million people each year. The emergence of drug resistance against existing therapeutics threatens to destabilize global efforts aimed at controlling Plasmodium spp. parasites, which is expected to leave vast portions of humanity unprotected against the disease. To address this need, systematic testing of a fungal natural product extract library assembled through the University of Oklahoma Citizen Science Soil Collection Program has generated an initial set of bioactive extracts that exhibit potent antiplasmodial activity (EC50 < 0.30 μg/mL) and low levels of toxicity against human cells (less than 50% reduction in HepG2 growth at 25 μg/mL).
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are powerful mediators of protracted adaptive immunity to infection in peripheral organs. Harnessing TRM cells through vaccination hence promises unprecedented potential for protection against infection. A paramount example of this is malaria, a major infectious disease for which immunity through traditional vaccination strategies remains challenging. Liver TRM cells appear to be highly protective against malaria, and recent developments in our knowledge of the biology of these cells have defined promising, novel strategies for their induction.
Malaria parasites use the RhopH complex for erythrocyte invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As the member proteins are unique to Plasmodium spp., how they interact and traffic through subcellular sites to serve these essential functions is unknown. We show that RhopH is synthesized as a soluble complex of CLAG3, RhopH2, and RhopH3 with 1:1:1 stoichiometry.
In efforts to control malaria infection, the Democratic Republic of Congo has implemented several strategies. Studies assessing their efficiency mainly involved at-risk groups, especially children under five years of age. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with Plasmodium spp. infection.
Infection with malarial parasites renders hosts more mosquito attractive than their uninfected, healthy, counterparts. One volatile organic compound, α-pinene, is associated with <I>Plasmodium</i> spp. infection in multiple studies and is a known mosquito attractant.