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resistance

Clinical and In Vitro Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate-Amodiaquine in Cambodia

August 4, 2021 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mairet-Khedim M, Leang R, Witkowski B, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 2;73(3):406-413

Artesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.

NOT Open Access | First report of N1575Y mutation in Anopheles gambiae in Sierra Leone

August 4, 2021 - 11:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Yin J, Yamba F, Zheng C, Smith SJ, Wang L, Li H, Xia Z, Zhou S, Xiao N
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Aug;92:104852

The resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides is one of the biological obstacles in the fight against malaria. Understanding of the status and mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae species is necessary for success of vector control efforts. The study aimed to determine the molecular forms of An. gambiae from four districts in Sierra Leone during May and June 2018, and the level of N1575Y mutation.

Characterization of resistance profile (intensity and mechanisms) of Anopheles gambiae in three communes of northern Benin, West Africa

July 28, 2021 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Casimir Dossou Kpanou, Hermann W. Sagbohan, Martin Akogbéto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:328, 27 July 2021

The selection and the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control tools are a major and ongoing challenge to malaria vector control programmes. This study aimed to determine the intensity of vector resistance to insecticides in three regions of Benin with different agro-ecological characteristics.

The newly discovered role of endocytosis in artemisinin resistance

July 28, 2021 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Behrens HM, Schmidt S, Spielmann T
Reference: 
Med Res Rev. 2021 Jul 26

Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are the cornerstone of malaria treatment as part of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). However, reduced susceptibility to artemisinin as well as its partner drugs threatens the usefulness of ACTs. Single point mutations in the parasite protein Kelch13 (K13) are necessary and sufficient for the reduced sensitivity of malaria parasites to ART but several alternative mechanisms for this resistance have been proposed.

The antimalarial MMV688533 provides potential for single-dose cures with a high barrier to Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistance

July 28, 2021 - 12:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Murithi JM, Pascal C, Leroy D, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jul 21;13(603):eabg6013

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to first-line antimalarials creates an imperative to identify and develop potent preclinical candidates with distinct modes of action. Here, we report the identification of MMV688533, an acylguanidine that was developed following a whole-cell screen with compounds known to hit high-value targets in human cells.

NOT Open Access | Evaluation of the usefulness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in a context with increased resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in Kingasani Hospital, Kinshasa in the Democratic Re

July 21, 2021 - 18:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalenda NK, Yobi DM, Speybroeck N, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Jul 17:105009

Increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) threatens its usefulness for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp-SP). The prophylactic effects of IPTp-SP on maternal malaria and adverse pregnancy outcomes were evaluated in Kingasani Hospital, Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Markov chain Monte Carlo Gibbs sampler approach for estimating haplotype frequencies among multiple malaria infected human blood samples

July 14, 2021 - 11:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gie Ken-Dror and Pankaj Sharma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:311, 10 July 2021

Malaria patients can have two or more haplotypes in their blood sample making it challenging to identify which haplotypes they carry. In addition, there are challenges in measuring the type and frequency of resistant haplotypes in populations. This study presents a novel statistical method Gibbs sampler algorithm to investigate this issue.

Balanced impacts of fitness and drug pressure on the evolution of PfMDR1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum

July 7, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marvin Duvalsaint, Melissa D. Conrad, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick K. Tumwebaze, Jennifer Legac, Roland A. Cooper and Philip J. Rosenthal
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:292, 30 June 2021

Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1.

NOT Open Access | Host-targeted Interventions as an Exciting Opportunity to Combat Malaria

July 6, 2021 - 14:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vijayan K, Wei L, Glennon EKK, Mattocks C, Bourgeois N, Staker B, Kaushansky A
Reference: 
Chem Rev. 2021 Jul 1

Terminal and benign diseases alike in adults, children, pregnant women, and others are successfully treated by pharmacological inhibitors that target human enzymes. Despite extensive global efforts to fight malaria, the disease continues to be a massive worldwide health burden, and new interventional strategies are needed. Current drugs and vector control strategies have contributed to the reduction in malaria deaths over the past 10 years, but progress toward eradication has waned in recent years.

Plasmodium falciparum phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile during the emergence of Piperaquine resistance in Northeastern Thailand

June 30, 2021 - 09:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boonyalai N, Thamnurak C, Gaywee J, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 28;11(1):13419

Malaria remains a public health problem in Thailand, especially along its borders where highly mobile populations can contribute to persistent transmission. This study aimed to determine resistant genotypes and phenotypes of 112 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients along the Thai-Cambodia border during 2013-2015. The majority of parasites harbored a pfmdr1-Y184F mutation. A single pfmdr1 copy number had CVIET haplotype of amino acids 72-76 of pfcrt and no pfcytb mutations. All isolates had a single pfk13 point mutation (R539T, R539I, or C580Y), and increased % survival in the ring-stage survival assay (except for R539I).

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