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resistance

Plasmodium falciparum rosetting protects schizonts against artemisinin

November 11, 2021 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee WC, Russell B, Lee B, Chu CS, Phyo AP, Sriprawat K, Lau YL, Nosten F, Rénia L
Reference: 
EBioMedicine. 2021 Nov 5;73:103680

Artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is thought to occur during the early stage of the parasite's erythrocytic cycle. Here, we identify a novel factor associated with the late stage parasite development that contributes to ART resistance.

Dissecting disease tolerance in Plasmodium vivax malaria using the systemic degree of inflammatory perturbation

November 4, 2021 - 12:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Vinhaes CL, Carmo TA, Queiroz ATL, Fukutani KF, Araújo-Pereira M, Arriaga MB, Lacerda MVG, Barral-Netto M, Andrade BB
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Nov 2;15(11):e0009886

Homeostatic perturbation caused by infection fosters two major defense strategies, resistance and tolerance, which promote the host's survival. Resistance relates to the ability of the host to restrict the pathogen load.

Time to scale up molecular surveillance for anti-malarial drug resistance in sub-saharan Africa

October 29, 2021 - 14:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christian Nsanzabana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:401, 13 October 2021

Artemisinin resistance has emerged and spread in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), followed by artemisinin-based combination therapy failure, due to both artemisinin and partner drug resistance. More worrying, artemisinin resistance has been recently reported and confirmed in Rwanda. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen surveillance systems beyond the GMS to track the emergence or spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance in other endemic settings. Currently, anti-malarial drug efficacy is monitored primarily through therapeutic efficacy studies (TES).

Molecular surveillance for polymorphisms associated with artemisinin-based combination therapy resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in Mozambique, 2018

October 23, 2021 - 18:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arlindo Chidimatembue, Samaly S. Svigel, Eusébio Macete, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:398, 12 October 2021

Due to the threat of emerging anti-malarial resistance, the World Health Organization recommends incorporating surveillance for molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance into routine therapeutic efficacy studies (TESs). In 2018, a TES of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) was conducted in Mozambique, and the prevalence of polymorphisms in the pfk13, pfcrt, and pfmdr1 genes associated with drug resistance was investigated.

A whole transcriptomic approach provides novel insights into the molecular basis of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia

September 29, 2021 - 10:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Messenger LA, Impoinvil LM, Derilus D, Yewhalaw D, Irish S, Lenhart A.
Reference: 
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Sep 22:103655

The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of increasing concern in Ethiopia because of its potential implications for vector control failure. To better elucidate the specificity of resistance mechanisms and to facilitate the design of control strategies that minimize the likelihood of selecting for cross-resistance, a whole transcriptomic approach was used to explore gene expression patterns in a multi-insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

Assessment of the Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of Implementing Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Nampula Province, Mozambique: Protocol for a Hybrid Effectiveness-Implementation Study

September 23, 2021 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wharton-Smith A, Baker K, Candrinho B, et al.
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Sep 15;10(9):e27855

Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged under 5 years in Mozambique. The World Health Organization recommends seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), the administration of four monthly courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), to children aged 3-59 months during rainy season. However, as resistance to SP is widespread in East and Southern Africa, SMC has so far only been implemented across the Sahel in West Africa.

New Insights into the Spread of Resistance to Artemisinin and its Analogues

September 15, 2021 - 12:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noreen N, Ullah A, Salman SM, Mabkhot Y, Alsayari A, Badshah SL
Reference: 
J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Sep 10:S2213-7165(21)00208-3

The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has been developing resistance to several drugs worldwide since more than five decades. Initially, resistance was toward drugs such as chloroquine, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, mefloquine, and quinine. Research studies are now reporting the resistance of parasites to the most effective and novel drug used against malaria infection worldwide, that is, artemisinin; for this reason, the first-line treatment strategy, including artemisinin combination therapy, is becoming unsuccessful in areas where drug resistance is highly prevalent.

Antimalarial drug resistance in the Central and Adamawa regions of Cameroon: Prevalence of mutations in P. falciparum crt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes

August 25, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tuedom AGB, Sarah-Matio EM, Nsango SE, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Aug 19;16(8):e0256343

The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistant parasites remains one of the major challenges for malaria control and elimination in Sub Saharan Africa. Monitoring of molecular markers conferring resistance to different antimalarials is important to track the spread of resistant parasites and to optimize the therapeutic lifespan of current drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of known mutations in the drug resistance genes Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps in two different epidemiological settings in Cameroon. Dried blood spots collected in 2018 and 2019 from asymptomatic individuals were used for DNA extraction and then the Plasmodium infection status was determined byPCR.

Resistance to artemisinin in falciparum malaria parasites: A redox-mediated phenomenon

August 25, 2021 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Egwu CO, Pério P, Augereau JM, Tsamesidis I, Benoit-Vical F, Reybier K
Reference: 
Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Aug 17:S0891-5849(21)00476-7

Malaria remains a major public health disease due to its high yearly mortality and morbidity. Resistance to the gold standard drug, artemisinin, is worrisome and needs better understanding in order to be overcome. In this work, we sought to study whether redox processes are involved in artemisinin resistance. As artemisinin is known to act among others via production of reactive species, we first compared the production of reactive oxygen species and concomitant protein oxidation in artemisinin-sensitive and artemisinin-resistant parasites when treated with artemisinin.

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