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Anti-malarial efficacy and resistance monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows inadequate efficacy in children in Burkina Faso, 2017–2018

January 20, 2021 - 08:38 -- Open Access
Adama Gansané, Leah F. Moriarty, Halidou Tinto, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:48, 19 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends regularly assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which is a critical tool in the fight against malaria. This study evaluated the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations recommended to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso in three sites: Niangoloko, Nanoro, and Gourcy.

Textile testing to assess the resistance to damage of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control and prevention

January 20, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Hamidreza Arouni, Vera Chetty and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:47, 19 January 2021

LLINs are susceptible to forming holes within a short time in use, compromising their ability to provide long-term physical protection against insect-borne vectors of disease. Mechanical damage is known to be responsible for the majority of holes, with most being the result of snagging, tearing, hole enlargement, abrasion and seam failure, which can readily occur during normal household use. To enable an assessment of the ability of LLINs to resist such damage prior to distribution, a new suite of testing methods was developed to reflect the main damage mechanisms encountered during normal use of LLINs.

Development of a single resistance to damage metric for mosquito nets related to physical integrity in the field

January 20, 2021 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Vera Chetty, Albert Kilian and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:46, 19 January 2021

In common with the majority of personal protective equipment and healthcare products, the ability for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to remain in good physical condition during use is a key factor governing fitness for purpose and serviceability. The inherent ability of a product to resist physical deterioration should be known in advance of it being used to ensure it has maximum value to both the end-user and procurer. The objective of this study was to develop a single performance metric of resistance to damage (RD) that can be applied to any LLIN product prior to distribution.

NOT Open Access | An insight into the recent development of the clinical candidates for the treatment of malaria and their target proteins

January 20, 2021 - 07:52 -- NOT Open Access
Madhav H, Hoda N
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Jan 15;210:112955

Malaria is an endemic disease, prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions which cost half of million deaths annually. The eradication of malaria is one of the global health priority nevertheless, current therapeutic efforts seem to be insufficient due to the emergence of drug resistance towards most of the available drugs, even first-line treatment ACT, unavailability of the vaccine, and lack of drugs with a new mechanism of action. Intensification of antimalarial research in recent years has resulted into the development of single dose multistage therapeutic agents which has advantage of overcoming the antimalarial drug resistance.

NOT Open Access | Current methods for the detection of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium parasites infecting humans

January 20, 2021 - 07:07 -- NOT Open Access
Slater L, Betson M, Ashraf S, Sargison N, Chaudhry U
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 16:10582

Malaria is the world's deadliest parasitic disease. Great progress has been made in the fight against malaria over the past two decades, but this has recently begun to plateau, in part due to the global development of antimalarial drug resistance. The ability to track drug resistance is necessary to achieve progress in treatment, disease surveillance and epidemiology, which has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic methods. These new methods provide unprecedented access to information that can help to guide public health policies.

NOT Open Access | Mammalian Deubiquitinating Enzyme Inhibitors Display in Vitro and in Vivo Activity against Malaria Parasites and Potentiate Artemisinin Action

January 14, 2021 - 08:49 -- NOT Open Access
Simwela NV, Hughes KR, Rennie MT, Barrett MP, Waters AP
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 5

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is an emerging drug target in malaria due to its essential role in the parasite's life cycle stages as well its contribution to resistance to artemisinins. Polymorphisms in the Kelch13 gene of Plasmodium falciparum are primary markers of artemisinin resistance and among other things are phenotypically characterized by an overactive UPS. Inhibitors targeting the proteasome, critical components of the UPS, display activity in malaria parasites and synergize artemisinin action. Here we report the activity of small molecule inhibitors targeting mammalian deubiquitinating enzymes, DUBs (upstream UPS components), in malaria parasites.

Correlation of textile ‘resistance to damage’ scores with actual physical survival of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the field

January 13, 2021 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Albert Kilian, Emmanuel Obi, Hannah Koenker, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:29, 7 January 2021

Attempts have been made to link procurement of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) not only to the price but also the expected performance of the product. However, to date it has not been possible to identify a specific textile characteristic that predicts physical durability in the field. The recently developed resistance to damage (RD) score could provide such a metric. This study uses pooled data from durability monitoring to explore the usefulness of the RD methodology.

NOT Open Access | Phylogenetic analysis suggests single and multiple origins of dihydrofolate reductase mutations in Plasmodium vivax

January 7, 2021 - 10:30 -- NOT Open Access
Shaukat A, Ali Q, Raud L, Wahab A, Khan TA, Rashid I, Rashid M, Hussain M, Saleem MA, Sargison ND, Chaudhry U
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 3:105821

Pyrimethamine was first introduced for the treatment of malaria in Asia and Africa during the early 1980s, replacing chloroquine, and has become the first line of drugs in many countries. In recent years, development of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium vivax has become a barrier to effective malaria control strategies. Here, we describe the use of meta-barcoded deep amplicon sequencing technology to assess the evolutionary origin of pyrimethamine resistance by analysing the flanking region of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus.

NOT Open Access | High Prevalence of Molecular Markers of Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Parts of Ghana: A Threat to ITPTp-SP

January 7, 2021 - 10:28 -- NOT Open Access
Afutu LL, Boampong JN, Quashie NB
J Trop Pediatr. 2021 Jan 6:fmaa120

Malaria in pregnancy is a huge public health problem as it is the cause of maternal anaemia, still birth, premature delivery, low birth weight among others. To tackle this problem, WHO recommended the administration, during pregnancy, of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). The introduction of this policy is likely to create SP drug pressure which may lead to the emergence of parasite strains resistant to the drug.

Increase in Kelch 13 Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum, Southern Rwanda

January 7, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Bergmann C, van Loon W, Habarugira F, Tacoli C, Jäger JC, Savelsberg D, Nshimiyimana F, Rwamugema E, Mbarushimana D, Ndoli J, Sendegeya A, Bayingana C, Mockenhaupt FP
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Jan;27(1):294-296

Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with nonsynonymous mutations in the Kelch 13 (K13) propeller domain.


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