Our current knowledge of the clinical burden, biology, and transmission of Plasmodium malariae is extremely scarce. To start addressing some of those questions, we experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with fresh P. malariae isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals in Lambaréné, Gabon.
Microsatellites can be utilized to explore genotypes, population structure, and other genomic features of eukaryotes. Systematic characterization of microsatellites has not been a focus for several species of Plasmodium, including P. malariae and P. ovale, as the majority of malaria elimination programs are focused on P. falciparum and to a lesser extent P. vivax. Here, five human malaria species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. knowlesi) were investigated with the aim of conducting in-depth categorization of microsatellites for P. malariae and P. ovale curtisi.
Plasmodium malariae is considered a minor malaria parasite, although its global disease burden is underappreciated. The aim of this study was to develop an induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model of P. malariae to study parasite biology, diagnostic assays, and treatment.
Plasmodium malariae mainly causes asymptomatic submicroscopic parasitemia in the endemic Amazon and non-endemic Atlantic Forest, where the number of cases and transmission of malaria through blood transfusion has increased. This study developed a P. malariae/P. brasilianum Real Time PCR (rtPCR) targeting the cytochrome b oxidase (cytb), a highly repetitive gene (20–150 copies/parasite) that should detect more cases than the 18S rRNA (4–8 copies/parasite) gene-based amplification systems. Cytb from human and non-human Plasmodium species (including P. brasilianum) aligned to the only 20 African P. malariae cytb sequences identified polymorphic regions within which we designed P. malariae species-specific primers.
Molecular genotyping in Plasmodium serves many aims including providing tools for studying parasite population genetics and distinguishing recrudescence from reinfection. Microsatellite typing, insertion-deletion (INDEL) and single nucleotide polymorphisms is used for genotyping, but only limited information is available for Plasmodium malariae, an important human malaria species. This study aimed to provide a set of genetic markers to facilitate the study of P. malariae population genetics.
Malaria is endemic in Tanzania with majority of clinical cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Additionally, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp. are also present and clinical manifestations caused by these infections are not well described. Clinical episodes caused by P. malariae infections are often characterized by a relatively mild illness with a low number of parasites, which can persist for long periods. In this report, two cases of P. malariae infections that were identified during a clinical trial evaluating the P. falciparum malaria vaccine candidate, PfSPZ Vaccine are described. The two participants were followed up and monitored for clinical and laboratory parameters to assess vaccine safety providing the opportunity to study clinical manifestations of P. malariae over 4 months.
A pan-malaria MSP119 cross-reactive antibody response was observed in elutions of blood spots from two 20–30 years old Mozambique donors. The antibody response from one of these two donors had low avidity and skewed almost entirely to the IgG3 subclass.
Treatment recommendations for Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale malaria are largely based on anecdotal evidence.
High mutational diversity was observed in P. malariae trap and ama1 as compared to p48/45 in P. malariae samples isolated from Thailand, Myanmar, and Lao PDR.
Twenty-eight days follow-up after treatment led to detection of a third parasite species in the blood of these two patients suggesting covert co-infection and a delayed appearance of one cryptic species following treatment.