Malaria transmission in The Gambia decreased substantially over the last 20 years thanks to the scale-up of control interventions. However, malaria prevalence is still relatively high in eastern Gambia and represents both a health and a financial burden for households. This study aims to quantify the out-of-pocket costs and productivity losses of seeking malaria treatment at household level.
Malaria is a worldwide parasitic disease, which affects millions of lives every year. Various medications are recommended by WHO for prevention and treatment of malaria. However, adverse events caused by antimalarials were frequently reported, some of which were severe and fatal.
To evaluate if cost and availability of antimalarials are barriers to malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, we surveyed retail pharmacies in Minneapolis/Saint Paul and New York City on the price and stocking of antimalarials.
Early treatment with parenteral antimalarials is key in preventing deaths and complications associated with severe and cerebral malaria. This can be challenging in 'hard-to-reach' areas in Africa where transit time to hospitals with facilities to administer drugs parenterally can be more than 6 h. Consequently, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of artesunate (ATS) suppositories for emergency treatment of patients, however, this treatment is only for children under 6 years. The intranasal route (INR) can provide a safe and effective alternative to parenteral and rectal routes for patients of all ages; thus, reducing delays to the initiation of treatment.
No abstract available
Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients. The efficacy of pharmacological therapy for cancer is limited by the heterogeneous nature of cancer cells and the lack of knowledge of microenvironments in metastasis. Evidence has shown that activated platelets possess both tumor-homing and metastasis-targeting properties via intrinsic cell adhesion molecules on platelets, and malaria protein VAR2CSA is able to specifically bind to oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which is overexpressed on cancer cells with both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes.
Sixty percent of the Ethiopia population is at risk of malaria, with the highest prevalence reported in Gambella (6%) and Benishangul-Gumuz (3%) regions. Within these regions are large agricultural developments with high numbers of seasonal migrant workers. The migrant workers are believed to be at increased risk for malaria infection due to their poor living conditions and outdoor activities, but there is little information on their specific behaviours and health risks. This study was conducted to address this gap.
This study aimed to hypothesize on the trend in malaria incidence in North Korea using malaria incidence among South Korean visitors to North Korea.
Although effective treatment for malaria is now available, approximately half of the global population remain at risk of the disease particularly in developing countries. To design effective malaria control strategies there is need to understand the pattern of malaria heterogeneity in an area. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal pattern of malaria cases in Zimbabwe based on malaria data aggregated at district level from 2011 to 2016.
Anti-malarial drugs play a critical role in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, but their role is mediated by their effectiveness. Effectiveness is defined as the probability that an anti-malarial drug will successfully treat an individual infected with malaria parasites under routine health care delivery system. Anti-malarial drug effectiveness (AmE) is influenced by drug resistance, drug quality, health system quality, and patient adherence to drug use; its influence on malaria burden varies through space and time.