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Treatment

Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria cases in Zimbabwe

October 28, 2020 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gwitira I, Mukonoweshuro M, Mapako G, Shekede MD, Chirenda J, Mberikunashe J
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Oct 22;9(1):146

Although effective treatment for malaria is now available, approximately half of the global population remain at risk of the disease particularly in developing countries. To design effective malaria control strategies there is need to understand the pattern of malaria heterogeneity in an area. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal pattern of malaria cases in Zimbabwe based on malaria data aggregated at district level from 2011 to 2016.

Global estimation of anti-malarial drug effectiveness for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 1991–2019

October 20, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Giulia Rathmes, Susan F. Rumisha, Daniel J. Weiss, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:374, 20 October 2020

Anti-malarial drugs play a critical role in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, but their role is mediated by their effectiveness. Effectiveness is defined as the probability that an anti-malarial drug will successfully treat an individual infected with malaria parasites under routine health care delivery system. Anti-malarial drug effectiveness (AmE) is influenced by drug resistance, drug quality, health system quality, and patient adherence to drug use; its influence on malaria burden varies through space and time.

Targeted Covalent Inhibitors for the Treatment of Malaria

October 20, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kulkarni S, Urbahns K, Spangenberg T
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 15

Malaria is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most serious infectious diseases threatening more than 3 billion people worldwide. In recent years, targeted covalent inhibitors (TCIs) have gained a lot of attention and several TCI-based drugs have been approved across different therapeutic areas.

Overlaying COVID-19 mitigation plans on malaria control infrastructures

October 13, 2020 - 13:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rahi M, Baharia RK, Das P, Chhibber-Goel J, Sharma A
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct 12:traa108

To counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, each country must design sustainable control plans given the inherent disparities in wealth and healthcare systems.

A cautionary note on the use of unsupervised machine learning algorithms to characterise malaria parasite population structure from genetic distance matrices

October 13, 2020 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson JA, Taylor AR, Ashley EA, Dondorp A, Buckee CO, White NJ, Holmes CC
Reference: 
PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 9;16(10):e1009037

Genetic surveillance of malaria parasites supports malaria control programmes, treatment guidelines and elimination strategies. Surveillance studies often pose questions about malaria parasite ancestry (e.g. how antimalarial resistance has spread) and employ statistical methods that characterise parasite population structure. Many of the methods used to characterise structure are unsupervised machine learning algorithms which depend on a genetic distance matrix, notably principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC).

NOT Open Access | Community pharmacists' knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its treatment in Sudan: a cross-sectional survey

October 7, 2020 - 16:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Elhag EAA, Sulaiman SAS
Reference: 
Int J Clin Pharm. 2020 Oct 6

Malaria is one of the main causes of death in Sudan with high prevalence among males, children under five-year and pregnant women. In 2016 near 13% of hospital admissions in Sudan were due to malaria. Community pharmacist dispensing of antimalarial drugs without prescription and malaria self-treatment may lead to the development of drugs resistance and delay disease control. Objective To assess the knowledge and practice of community pharmacists regarding malaria and its treatment. Setting Community pharmacies in Khartoum State, Sudan.

Repurposing Pyramax®, quinacrine and tilorone as treatments for Ebola virus disease

October 7, 2020 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lane TR, Dyall J, Mercer L, Goodin C, Foil DH, Zhou H, Postnikova E, Liang JY, Holbrook MR, Madrid PB, Ekins S
Reference: 
Antiviral Res. 2020 Oct;182:104908

We have recently identified three molecules (tilorone, quinacrine and pyronaridine tetraphosphate) which all demonstrated efficacy in the mouse model of infection with mouse-adapted Ebola virus (EBOV) model of disease and had similar in vitro inhibition of an Ebola pseudovirus (VSV-EBOV-GP), suggesting they interfere with viral entry.

Pharmacological and cardiovascular perspectives on the treatment of COVID-19 with chloroquine derivatives

September 24, 2020 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang XL, Li ZM, Ye JT, Lu J, Ye LL, Zhang CX, Liu PQ, Duan DD
Reference: 
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020 Sep 23

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an ongoing severe pandemic. Curative drugs specific for COVID-19 are currently lacking. Chloroquine phosphate and its derivative hydroxychloroquine, which have been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria and autoimmune diseases for decades, were found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection with high potency in vitro and have shown clinical and virologic benefits in COVID-19 patients.

A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of optimizing treatment for malaria

September 12, 2020 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang R, Dong X, Wang J, Guo Y, Dai Y
Reference: 
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Sep 4;99(36):e22044

Malaria remains a global health threat for centuries. In recent years, a rising resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to current standard artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) leads to increasing treatment failures and requires for optimized treatment. Here, we intend to make a systematic review and meta-analysis of optimizing treatment for malaria, so as to find a potential optimal treatment.

NOT Open Access | Treatment Approved for Severe Malaria

September 5, 2020 - 15:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Aschenbrenner DS
Reference: 
Am J Nurs. 2020 Sep;120(9):24

Artesunate for injection has been approved as initial treatment for severe malaria in both adults and children; artesunate should be followed by a full course of treatment with an oral antimalarial drug to prevent relapse.

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