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Treatment

NOT Open Access | Intranasal artesunate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: A convenient alternative to parenteral formulations for the treatment of severe and cerebral malaria

June 15, 2021 - 15:09 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Agbo CP, Ugwuanyi TC, Ugwuoke WI, McConville C, Attama AA, Ofokansi KC
Reference: 
J Control Release. 2021 Jun 10;334:224-236

Early treatment with parenteral antimalarials is key in preventing deaths and complications associated with severe and cerebral malaria. This can be challenging in 'hard-to-reach' areas in Africa where transit time to hospitals with facilities to administer drugs parenterally can be more than 6 h. Consequently, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of artesunate (ATS) suppositories for emergency treatment of patients, however, this treatment is only for children under 6 years. The intranasal route (INR) can provide a safe and effective alternative to parenteral and rectal routes for patients of all ages; thus, reducing delays to the initiation of treatment.

NOT Open Access | Platelet Membrane-Coated and VAR2CSA Malaria Protein-Functionalized Nanoparticles for Targeted Treatment of Primary and Metastatic Cancer

June 1, 2021 - 12:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou M, Lai W, Li G, Wang F, Liu W, Liao J, Yang H, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Tang Q, Hu C, Huang J, Zhang R
Reference: 
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021 May 26

Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients. The efficacy of pharmacological therapy for cancer is limited by the heterogeneous nature of cancer cells and the lack of knowledge of microenvironments in metastasis. Evidence has shown that activated platelets possess both tumor-homing and metastasis-targeting properties via intrinsic cell adhesion molecules on platelets, and malaria protein VAR2CSA is able to specifically bind to oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which is overexpressed on cancer cells with both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes.

Malaria prevention and treatment in migrant agricultural workers in Dangur district, Benishangul-Gumuz, Ethiopia: social and behavioural aspects

May 19, 2021 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yehualashet Tadesse, Seth R. Irish, Matthew Murphy, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:224, 19 May 2021

Sixty percent of the Ethiopia population is at risk of malaria, with the highest prevalence reported in Gambella (6%) and Benishangul-Gumuz (3%) regions. Within these regions are large agricultural developments with high numbers of seasonal migrant workers. The migrant workers are believed to be at increased risk for malaria infection due to their poor living conditions and outdoor activities, but there is little information on their specific behaviours and health risks. This study was conducted to address this gap.

A small window into the status of malaria in North Korea: estimation of imported malaria incidence of the visitors

November 25, 2020 - 12:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sung J, Cheong HK, Lim AY, Kim JH
Reference: 
Epidemiol Health. 2020 Nov 21:e2020068

This study aimed to hypothesize on the trend in malaria incidence in North Korea using malaria incidence among South Korean visitors to North Korea.

Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria cases in Zimbabwe

October 28, 2020 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gwitira I, Mukonoweshuro M, Mapako G, Shekede MD, Chirenda J, Mberikunashe J
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Oct 22;9(1):146

Although effective treatment for malaria is now available, approximately half of the global population remain at risk of the disease particularly in developing countries. To design effective malaria control strategies there is need to understand the pattern of malaria heterogeneity in an area. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal pattern of malaria cases in Zimbabwe based on malaria data aggregated at district level from 2011 to 2016.

Global estimation of anti-malarial drug effectiveness for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria 1991–2019

October 20, 2020 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Giulia Rathmes, Susan F. Rumisha, Daniel J. Weiss, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:374, 20 October 2020

Anti-malarial drugs play a critical role in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, but their role is mediated by their effectiveness. Effectiveness is defined as the probability that an anti-malarial drug will successfully treat an individual infected with malaria parasites under routine health care delivery system. Anti-malarial drug effectiveness (AmE) is influenced by drug resistance, drug quality, health system quality, and patient adherence to drug use; its influence on malaria burden varies through space and time.

Targeted Covalent Inhibitors for the Treatment of Malaria

October 20, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kulkarni S, Urbahns K, Spangenberg T
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 15

Malaria is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the most serious infectious diseases threatening more than 3 billion people worldwide. In recent years, targeted covalent inhibitors (TCIs) have gained a lot of attention and several TCI-based drugs have been approved across different therapeutic areas.

Overlaying COVID-19 mitigation plans on malaria control infrastructures

October 13, 2020 - 13:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rahi M, Baharia RK, Das P, Chhibber-Goel J, Sharma A
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct 12:traa108

To counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, each country must design sustainable control plans given the inherent disparities in wealth and healthcare systems.

A cautionary note on the use of unsupervised machine learning algorithms to characterise malaria parasite population structure from genetic distance matrices

October 13, 2020 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Watson JA, Taylor AR, Ashley EA, Dondorp A, Buckee CO, White NJ, Holmes CC
Reference: 
PLoS Genet. 2020 Oct 9;16(10):e1009037

Genetic surveillance of malaria parasites supports malaria control programmes, treatment guidelines and elimination strategies. Surveillance studies often pose questions about malaria parasite ancestry (e.g. how antimalarial resistance has spread) and employ statistical methods that characterise parasite population structure. Many of the methods used to characterise structure are unsupervised machine learning algorithms which depend on a genetic distance matrix, notably principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC).

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