The efficacies of artemisinin based combinations have been excellent in Africa, but also comprehensive evidence regarding their safety would be important. The aim of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria among children in Africa.
In Uganda, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is first-line therapy and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) second-line therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of AL and DP in the management of uncomplicated falciparum malaria and measured the prevalence of molecular markers of resistance in three sentinel sites in Uganda from 2018 to 2019.
Intermittent preventive treatment with monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) is highly effective at preventing both malaria during pregnancy and placental malaria. Piperaquine prolongs the corrected QT interval (QTc), and it is possible that repeated monthly dosing could lead to progressive QTc prolongation. Intensive characterization of the relationship between piperaquine concentration and QTc interval throughout pregnancy can inform effective and safe prevention guidelines.
Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACTs) have been a cornerstone in the treatment of malaria in the world. A rapid decline in dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DHP) and artemether lumefantrine (ALU) efficacies has been reported in some parts of South East Asia, the historical epicenter for the antimalarial drug resistance. Prolonged drug use is associated with selection of resistant parasites due to exposure to inadequate drug levels hence effects on treatment outcomes in malaria. ALU and DHP are used as first line and alternative first line, respectively, in Tanzania. This study was carried in Igombe, Tanzania to assess the efficacies of ALU and DHP in routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children.
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is highly protective against malaria in children, but is not standard in malaria-endemic countries. Optimal DP dosing regimens will maximize efficacy and reduce toxicity and resistance selection. We analyze piperaquine (PPQ) concentrations (n = 4573), malaria incidence data (n = 326), and P. falciparum drug resistance markers from a trial of children randomized to IPT with DP every 12 weeks (n = 184) or every 4 weeks (n = 96) from 2 to 24 months of age (NCT02163447).
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by the World Health Organization for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy (MIP)-associated adverse outcomes in high burden areas. However, the efficacy of IPTp-SP has decreased in step with increasing parasite drug resistance. Suitable alternative strategies are needed.
The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.
Malaria epidemics are a well-described phenomenon after extreme precipitation and flooding, which account for nearly half of global disasters over the past two decades. Yet few studies have examined mitigation measures to prevent post-flood malaria epidemics.
Emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives poses a threat to the global effort to control malaria. The emergence of anti-malarial resistance has become a great public health challenge and continues to be a leading threat to ongoing malaria control efforts. The aim of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria among children in Africa.
Malaria is a major cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, but resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only antimalarial recommended by the World Health Organisation for intermittent preventive therapy, is threatening the gains made in the last two decades. In this issue, Mlugu and colleagues present the results of a trial of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as an alternative to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. The results are impressive but raise the question why they differ so much from three previous trials.