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chemoprophylaxis

Single loading-dose tafenoquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis during brief travel

July 13, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Baird JK
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2021 Jul 7;28(5):taab081

In this issue of the Journal of Travel Medicine, Islam et al.1 examine what the US Army developers of tafenoquine envisioned as its most useful application—a single dose providing sustained protection from malaria. Informally, they referred to that vision as ‘fire-and-forget’ chemoprophylaxis. The relatively prolonged elimination half-life of tafenoquine (about 18 days) was selected from among competing preclinical 8-aminoquinolines for this purpose.

NOT Open Access | Efficacy of a 3-day pre-travel schedule of Tafenoquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis: A network meta-analysis

April 13, 2021 - 13:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Islam N, Wright S, Lau CL, Doi SAR, Mills DJ, Clark J, Clements ACA, Furuya-Kanamori L
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2021 Apr 8:taab057

Chemoprophylaxis with weekly doses of tafenoquine (200 mg/day for 3 days before departure [loading dose], 200 mg/week during travel and one-week post-travel [maintenance doses]) is effective in preventing malaria. Effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis drugs in travellers is often compromised by poor compliance. Shorter schedules that can be completed before travel, allowing ‘drug-free holidays’, could increase compliance and thus reduce travel-related malaria. In this meta-analysis, we examined if a loading dose of tafenoquine alone is effective in preventing malaria in short-term travellers.

Targeting Malaria Hotspots to Reduce Transmission Incidence in Senegal

January 1, 2021 - 15:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sallah K, Giorgi R, Ba EH, Piarroux M, Piarroux R, Cisse B, Gaudart J
Reference: 
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 24;18(1):E76

In central Senegal, malaria incidence declined in response to scaling-up of control measures from 2000 to 2010 and has since remained stable, making elimination unlikely in the short term. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots using a metapopulation mathematical model, based on a differential-equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidence from 45 villages.

Efficacy and safety of tafenoquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis (1998-2020): A systematic review and meta-analysis

November 25, 2020 - 12:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maier JD, Siegfried S, Gültekin N, Stanga Z, Baird JK, Grobusch MP, Schlagenhauf P
Reference: 
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 20:101908

In 2018, tafenoquine was approved for malaria chemoprophylaxis. We evaluated all available data on the safety and efficacy of tafenoquine chemoprophylaxis.

Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination: Phase I Study to Explore Stage-specific Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum in US Adults

September 15, 2020 - 10:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Healy SA, Murphy SC, Duffy PE, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 12;71(6):1481-1490

Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against a homologous Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs, such as primaquine, act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluated CVac regimens using primaquine and/or chloroquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood-stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.

NOT Open Access | Malaria Disease and Chemoprophylaxis Usage among Israeli Travelers to Endemic Countries

April 13, 2020 - 15:09 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Harel R, Chazan B, Schwartz E
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 6

Prevention of malaria in travelers to endemic countries is one of the complex challenges of travel medicine. Israel has a widespread culture of travel to developing countries, but information regarding malaria prevention is limited so far. Our study, conducted in Sheba Medical Center, Israel, during the years 2008–2018 examined malaria chemoprophylaxis usage and malaria cases in a large group of Israeli travelers returning from endemic countries with any medical complaint.

The duration of chemoprophylaxis against malaria after treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine and the effects of pfmdr1 86Y and pfcrt 76T: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

March 2, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bretscher MT, Dahal P, Okell LC, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Feb 25; 18(1):47

The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Africa are treated with the artemisinin combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), with amodiaquine being also widely used as part of seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. While artemisinin derivatives have a short half-life, lumefantrine and amodiaquine may give rise to differing durations of post-treatment prophylaxis, an important additional benefit to patients in higher transmission areas.

A systematic review of factors affecting adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis amongst travellers from non-endemic countries

January 15, 2020 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julian Ahluwalia, Samantha K. Brooks, John Weinman and G. James Rubin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:16, 13 January 202

The aim of this systematic review was to identify predictors of actual or intended adherence with malaria chemoprophylaxis amongst travellers from non-endemic countries visiting endemic countries.

Utilization patterns of malaria chemoprophylaxis among Tanzanian children attending sickle cell clinic in Dar es Salaam tertiary hospitals

December 10, 2019 - 08:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Esther J. Ndegeulaya, George M. Bwire, Raphael Z. Sangeda, Doreen Mloka, Faustine Tungaraza, Augustino S. Kahere, Fidelis F. Manyaki, Fatuma F. Felician, Manase Kilonzi, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa, Hamu J. Mlyuka, Alphonce I. Marealle, Ritah Mutagonda, Liberata Mwita and Kennedy D. Mwambete
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:393, 3 December 2019

Malaria is among the leading cause of infection in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) living in sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. However, after 2005 the standard treatment guidelines (STGs) on malaria chemoprevention for SCD patients were non-existent, and at present no medicine is recommended for SCD patients. Since several anti-malarials have been approved for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, it is important to establish if there is a continued use of chemoprevention against malaria among SCD children.

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