In this issue of the Journal of Travel Medicine, Islam et al.1 examine what the US Army developers of tafenoquine envisioned as its most useful application—a single dose providing sustained protection from malaria. Informally, they referred to that vision as ‘fire-and-forget’ chemoprophylaxis. The relatively prolonged elimination half-life of tafenoquine (about 18 days) was selected from among competing preclinical 8-aminoquinolines for this purpose.
Chemoprophylaxis with weekly doses of tafenoquine (200 mg/day for 3 days before departure [loading dose], 200 mg/week during travel and one-week post-travel [maintenance doses]) is effective in preventing malaria. Effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis drugs in travellers is often compromised by poor compliance. Shorter schedules that can be completed before travel, allowing ‘drug-free holidays’, could increase compliance and thus reduce travel-related malaria. In this meta-analysis, we examined if a loading dose of tafenoquine alone is effective in preventing malaria in short-term travellers.
In central Senegal, malaria incidence declined in response to scaling-up of control measures from 2000 to 2010 and has since remained stable, making elimination unlikely in the short term. Additional control measures are needed to reduce transmission. We simulated chemoprophylaxis interventions targeting malaria hotspots using a metapopulation mathematical model, based on a differential-equation framework and incorporating human mobility. The model was fitted to weekly malaria incidence from 45 villages.
In 2018, tafenoquine was approved for malaria chemoprophylaxis. We evaluated all available data on the safety and efficacy of tafenoquine chemoprophylaxis.
Chemoprophylaxis vaccination with sporozoites (CVac) with chloroquine induces protection against a homologous Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) challenge, but whether blood-stage parasite exposure is required for protection remains unclear. Chloroquine suppresses and clears blood-stage parasitemia, while other antimalarial drugs, such as primaquine, act against liver-stage parasites. Here, we evaluated CVac regimens using primaquine and/or chloroquine as the partner drug to discern whether blood-stage parasite exposure impacts protection against homologous controlled human malaria infection.
No abstract available
Prevention of malaria in travelers to endemic countries is one of the complex challenges of travel medicine. Israel has a widespread culture of travel to developing countries, but information regarding malaria prevention is limited so far. Our study, conducted in Sheba Medical Center, Israel, during the years 2008–2018 examined malaria chemoprophylaxis usage and malaria cases in a large group of Israeli travelers returning from endemic countries with any medical complaint.
The majority of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Africa are treated with the artemisinin combination therapies artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), with amodiaquine being also widely used as part of seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs combined with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. While artemisinin derivatives have a short half-life, lumefantrine and amodiaquine may give rise to differing durations of post-treatment prophylaxis, an important additional benefit to patients in higher transmission areas.
The aim of this systematic review was to identify predictors of actual or intended adherence with malaria chemoprophylaxis amongst travellers from non-endemic countries visiting endemic countries.
Malaria is among the leading cause of infection in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) living in sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. However, after 2005 the standard treatment guidelines (STGs) on malaria chemoprevention for SCD patients were non-existent, and at present no medicine is recommended for SCD patients. Since several anti-malarials have been approved for the treatment of malaria in Tanzania, it is important to establish if there is a continued use of chemoprevention against malaria among SCD children.