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anti-malarial

Forest malaria and prospects for anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis among forest goers: findings from a qualitative study in Lao PDR

January 19, 2022 - 20:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Monnaphat Jongdeepaisal, Soulixay Inthasone, Panarasri Khonputsa, Vilayvone Malaphone, Kulchada Pongsoipetch, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Mayfong Mayxay, Keobouphaphone Chindavongsa, Christopher Pell and Richard J. Maude
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2022 21:8, 5 January 2022

Despite significant decline in malarial incidence and mortality in countries across the Greater Mekong Subregion, the disease remains a public health challenge in the region; transmission continues mainly among people who visit forests in remote areas, often along international borders, where access to primary healthcare is limited. In the absence of effective vector-control measures and limited exposure periods, malaria chemoprophylaxis has been proposed as a strategy to protect forest goers. As a rarely used approach for indigenous populations, questions remain about its feasibility and acceptability. Drawing on in-depth interviews with forest goers and stakeholders, this article examines opportunities and challenges for implementation of anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis for forest goers in Lao PDR.

Molecular identification and anti-malarial drug resistance profile of Plasmodium falciparum from patients attending Kisoro Hospital, southwestern Uganda

January 18, 2022 - 21:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Manirakiza G, Kassaza K, Taremwa IM, Bazira J, Byarugaba F
Reference: 
Malar J. 2022 Jan 15;21(1):21

The evolution of malaria infection has necessitated the development of highly sensitive diagnostic assays, as well as the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as a potential source of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) yield for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. This study identified the different Plasmodium species in malaria-positive patients, and the anti-malarial drug resistance profile for Plasmodium falciparum using DBS samples collected from patients attending Kisoro Hospital in Kisoro district, Southwestern Uganda.

Significant differences in FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb genes polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Saudi children

October 6, 2021 - 20:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amre Nasr, Ahmad Aljada, Osama Hamid, Hatim A. Elsheikh, Emad Masuadi, Ahmad Al-Bawab, Themer H. Alenazi, Amir Abushouk and Ayman M. Salah
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:376, 22 September 2021

The FcγRs genotypes have been reported to play a key role in the defence against malaria parasites through both cellular and humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between FcγR (IIa, IIIa, and IIIb) genes polymorphism and the clinical outcome for anti‐malarial antibody response of Plasmodium falciparum infection among Saudi children.

Exploring natural microbial resources for the discovery of anti-malarial compounds

August 10, 2021 - 18:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Waluyo D, Prabandari EE, Nozaki T, et al.
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Aug 4:102432

Microorganisms in nature are highly diverse biological resources, which can be explored for drug discovery. Some countries including Brazil, Columbia, Indonesia, China, and Mexico, which are blessed with geographical uniqueness with diverse climates display remarkable megabiodiversity, potentially provide microorganismal resources for such exploitation.

Is there evidence of anti-malarial multidrug resistance in Burkina Faso?

July 21, 2021 - 17:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charlotte Rasmussen and Pascal Ringwald
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:320, 19 July 2021

Recently, Gansané and colleagues published an article on inadequate efficacy of two different forms of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Burkina Faso. The development of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to different ACT partner drugs at levels that could affect the efficacy of two ACT would both be startling and a cause for great concern. In reviewing the available data collected since 2008 on ACT efficacy in Burkina Faso, the analysis shows that the reported efficacy of the tested ACT varies greatly.

Broad spectrum anti-coronavirus activity of a series of anti-malaria quinoline analogues

July 6, 2021 - 13:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Persoons L, Vanderlinden E, Vangeel L, Wang X, Thuc Do ND, Caroline Foo SY, Leyssen P, Neyts J, Jochmans D, Schols D, De Jonghe S
Reference: 
Antiviral Res. 2021 Jul 1:105127

In this study, a series of 10 quinoline analogues was evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), as well as the human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were the most potent with antiviral EC50 values in the range of 0.12-12 μM. Chloroquine displayed the most favorable selectivity index (i.e. ratio cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration), being 165 for HCoV-OC43 in HEL cells.

Evaluation of the effect of supervised anti-malarial treatment on recurrences of Plasmodium vivax malaria

June 16, 2021 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kelry Mazurega Oliveira Dinelly, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Gisely Cardoso Melo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:266, 13 June 2021

Relapses in vivax malaria have posed great challenges for malaria control, and they also account for a great proportion of reported cases. Knowing the real effectiveness of a 7-day primaquine (PQ) scheme is crucial in order to evaluate not only the cost-effectiveness of implementing new anti-hypnozoite drugs, but also how health education strategies can guarantee better compliance and be reinforced. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of daily treatment with chloroquine and PQ supervised by health workers versus prescription without supervision.

2D-quantitative structure–activity relationships model using PLS method for anti-malarial activities of anti-haemozoin compounds

June 16, 2021 - 12:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Phuong Thuy Viet Nguyen, Truong Van Dat, Kenji Hirayama, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:264, 11 June 2021

Emergence of cross-resistance to current anti-malarial drugs has led to an urgent need for identification of potential compounds with novel modes of action and anti-malarial activity against the resistant strains. One of the most promising therapeutic targets of anti-malarial agents related to food vacuole of malaria parasite is haemozoin, a product formed by the parasite through haemoglobin degradation.

NOT Open Access | An insight in anti-malarial potential of indole scaffold: A review

June 9, 2021 - 07:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chauhan M, Saxena A, Saha B
Reference: 
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Jun 5;218:113400

Malaria is a major parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Pertaining to the sustaining resistance in malarial parasite against the available drugs, novel treatment options are the need of the hour. In this resolve recently, focus has shifted to finding the natural alternatives that possess anti-plasmodial activity for combatting malaria.

Malaria-Resistant Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae); The Principle is Proven, But Will the Effectors Be Effective

May 25, 2021 - 13:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adelman ZN, Kojin BB
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 May 21:tjab090

Over the last few decades, a substantial number of anti-malarial effector genes have been evaluated for their ability to block parasite infection in the mosquito vector. While many of these approaches have yielded significant effects on either parasite intensity or prevalence of infection, just a few have been able to completely block transmission.

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