P218 is a highly selective dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity against pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase Ib study evaluated P218 safety and chemoprotective efficacy in a P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) volunteer infection study (VIS). Consecutive dose safety and tolerability were evaluated (cohort 1), with participants receiving two oral doses of P218 1,000 mg 48 hours apart (n = 6), or placebo (n = 2). P218 chemoprotective efficacy was assessed (cohorts 2 and 3) with direct venous inoculation of 3,200 aseptic, cryopreserved PfSPZ (NF54 strain) followed 2 hours later with two P218 doses of 1,000 mg (cohort 2, n = 9) or 100 mg (cohort 3, n = 9) administered 48 hours apart, or placebo (n = 6).
Pyrimethamine was first introduced for the treatment of malaria in Asia and Africa during the early 1980s, replacing chloroquine, and has become the first line of drugs in many countries. In recent years, development of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium vivax has become a barrier to effective malaria control strategies. Here, we describe the use of meta-barcoded deep amplicon sequencing technology to assess the evolutionary origin of pyrimethamine resistance by analysing the flanking region of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus.
Molecular genotyping holds tremendous potential to detect antimalarial drug resistance (ADR) related to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it suffers from complicated procedures and expensive instruments. Thus, rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) molecular tools are urgently needed for field survey and clinical use. Herein, a POCT platform consisted of multiple allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based lateral flow biosensor was designed and developed for SNPs detection of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) gene related to pyrimethamine resistance.
In this era of precision medicine, insights into the resistance mechanism of drugs are integral for the development of potent therapeutics. Here, we sought to understand the contribution of four point mutations (N51I, C59R, S108N, and I164L) within the active site of the malaria parasite enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) towards the resistance of the antimalarial drug pyrimethamine. Homology modeling was used to obtain full-length models of wild type (WT) and mutant DHFR.
Significant changes were found in pfdhps polymorphism. In particular, we observed several parasites carrying eight mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps genes, which are very susceptible to having a high level of resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.
This study showed that AL was safe, well-tolerated and efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
The present findings could help in targeting health education programs to specific subgroups of women to increase compliance with the recommended 2 doses of SP for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy.
Here we report the identification and functional characterization of the first protozoan pantothenate transporter, PfPAT, from P. falciparum. We show using cell biological, biochemical, and genetic analyses that this transporter is localized to the parasite plasma membrane and plays an essential role in parasite intraerythrocytic development.
The developed MEEKC method can be proposed as an alternative method to liquid chromatography for the determination of artemether and lumefantrine in fixed-dose combination tablet formulations.