As artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are compromised by resistance, we are evaluating triple combination therapies (TACTs) comprising an amino-artemisinin, a redox drug, and a third drug with a different mode of action. Thus, here we briefly review efficacy data on artemisone, artemiside, other amino-artemisinins, and 11-aza-artemisinin and conduct absorption, distribution, and metabolism and excretion (ADME) profiling in vitro and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling in vivo via intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration to mice.
To assess the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, lumefantrine and their active metabolites in Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.
Pathological features observed in both human and experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) are endothelial dysfunction and changes in blood components. Blood transfusion has been routinely used in patients with severe malarial anemia and can also benefit comatose and acidotic malaria patients. In the present study Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were transfused intraperitoneally with 200 μL of whole blood along with 20 mg/kg of artemether.
Malaria affects more than 200 million people annually around the world, killing a child every 2 min. Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard choice to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, they are hydrophobic compounds with low oral bioavailability. Microneedle (MN) arrays consist of micron-sized needles on one side of a supporting base and have the ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally invasive way, creating temporary channels through which drugs can diffuse, including those with poor water solubility.
Artemether (ART) is second to artesunate in being the most widely used derivatives of artemisinin in combination therapy of malaria. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulations were prepared following our previous report using optimized ART concentration of 0.25 g dissolved in 5% w/v mixture of solid (Gelucire 43/01 and Phospholipon 85G) and liquid (Transcutol) lipids at 90 °C. An aqueous surfactant phase at 90 °C was added (dropwise) under magnetic stirring (1000 rpm) for 5 min. The pre-emulsion was speedily homogenized at 28,000 rpm for 15 min and further probe sonicated at 60% amplitude (15 min). Resultant sample was cooled at room temperature and frozen at - 80 °C prior to lyophilization.
The choline derivative (CD) and polyethylene-glycol (PEG) dually modified artemether (ARM) nanostructured lipid carriers (CD-PEG-ARM-NLC) have been designed to prolong the circulation of ARM in blood, as well as to develop targeting for new permeability pathways (NPPs) and erythrocyte choline carriers (ECCs) that are expressed on the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte membrane.
Qinghaosu, known as artemisinin (ARS), has been for over two millennia, one of the most common herbs prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). ARS was developed as an antimalarial drug and currently belongs to the established standard treatments of malaria as a combination therapy worldwide. In addition to the antimalarial bioactivity of ARS, anticancer activities have been shown both in vitro and in vivo.
The World Health Organization has called for the development of novel drug delivery systems to combat malaria – the fourth most prevalent cause of death globally. The plausibility of utilizing hot fusion to prepare solid lipid dispersions containing the prescribed first-line, double-fixed dose combination (artemether and lumefantrine), proposed for inclusion in directly compressed lipid matrix tablets, was investigated.
Three novel tracers designed as fluorescent surrogates of artemisinin-derived antimalarial drugs (i.e., dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether, and artemisone) were synthesized from dihydroartemisinin.
Three novel tracers designed as fluorescent surrogates of artemisinin-derived antimalarial drugs (i. e., dihydroartemisinin, artemether, arteether and artemisone) were synthesized from dihydroartemisinin.