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Incremental impact on malaria incidence following indoor residual spraying in a highly endemic area with high standard ITN access in Mozambique: results from a cluster‐randomized study

February 11, 2021 - 09:37 -- Open Access
Carlos Chaccour, Rose Zulliger, Francisco Saute, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:84, 10 February 2021

Attaining the goal of reducing the global malaria burden is threatened by recent setbacks in maintaining the effectiveness of vector control interventions partly due to the emergence of pyrethroid resistant vectors. One potential strategy to address these setbacks could be combining indoor residual spraying (IRS) with non-pyrethroids and standard insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study aimed to provide evidence on the incremental epidemiological benefit of using third-generation IRS product in a highly endemic area with high ITN ownership.

Fine-scale distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside human dwellings in three low-altitude Tanzanian villages

February 3, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Mmbando AS, Kaindoa EW, Ngowo HS, Swai JK, Matowo NS, Kilalangongono M, Lingamba GP, Mgando JP, Namango IH, Okumu FO, Nelli L
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 28;16(1):e0245750

While malaria transmission in Africa still happens primarily inside houses, there is a substantial proportion of Anopheles mosquitoes that bite or rest outdoors. This situation may compromise the performance of indoor insecticidal interventions such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study investigated the distribution of malaria mosquitoes biting or resting outside dwellings in three low-altitude villages in south-eastern Tanzania. The likelihood of malaria infections outdoors was also assessed.

NOT Open Access | Patterns and correlates of ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated bed-nets for malaria control among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Malawi

February 2, 2021 - 17:09 -- NOT Open Access
Forty J, Keetile M
J Biosoc Sci. 2021 Feb 2:1-10

Malaria is a major public health concern in Malawi. This study explored the patterns and correlates of ownership and utilization of ITNs for malaria control among women of reproductive age in Malawi. Data were derived from the multi-stage cross-sectional Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) conducted in 2017, which followed ITN distribution in 2012 and 2015. Of the 3860 sampled women aged 15-49 years, 88% (3398/3860) and 64% (2473/3860) reported that they owned and utilized ITNs, respectively. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of ownership of ITNs were significantly low among women with no education (AOR = 0.36, CI = 0.18-0.72), those with primary education (AOR = 0.50, CI = 0.27-0.94) and poor women (AOR = 0.70, CI = 0.51-0.97).

Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia

February 2, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 1;14(1):91

The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia’s Western Province.

Improving malaria preventive practices and pregnancy outcomes through a health education intervention: A randomized controlled trial

January 27, 2021 - 11:43 -- Open Access
Ahmed Dahiru Balami, Salmiah Md. Said, Nor Afiah Mohd Zulkefli, Bachok Norsa’adah and Bala Audu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:55, 21 January 2021

The prevalence of malaria in pregnancy and its complications, remain very high in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the effects of a malaria health educational intervention based on the information-motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model on malaria preventive practices and pregnancy outcomes.

Quantifying individual variability in exposure risk to mosquito bites in the Cascades region, Burkina Faso

January 20, 2021 - 08:26 -- Open Access
Federica Guglielmo, Antoine Sanou, Thomas Churcher, Heather M. Ferguson, Hilary Ranson and Ellie Sherrard-Smith
Malaria Journal 2021 20:44, 18 January 2021

The Cascades region, Burkina Faso, has a high malaria burden despite reported high insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use. Human and vector activities outside the hours when indoor interventions offer direct protection from infectious bites potentially increase exposure risk to bites from malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes. This work investigated the degree of variation in human behaviour both between individuals and through time (season) to quantify how it impacts exposure to malaria vectors.

Effectiveness of the school-based social and behaviour change communication interventions on insecticide-treated nets utilization among primary school children in rural Ethiopia: a controlled quasi-experimental design

January 13, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Fira Abamecha, Morankar Sudhakar, Lakew Abebe, Yohannes Kebede, Guda Alemayehu and Zewdie Birhanu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:41, 13 January 2021

School-based behaviour change communication interventions could help to achieve behavioural changes in the school and enhance the enrollment of the students and teachers as health messengers to local communities. Evidence on the impacts of the school-engaged malaria preventive interventions are limited as far as the social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) is concerned. This study examined the effectiveness of the school-based SBCC approach on insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) utilization among primary school students in malaria-endemic settings of Ethiopia.

Determinants of uptake of malaria preventive interventions among pregnant women in eastern Uganda

January 6, 2021 - 11:43 -- Open Access
Solomon Tsebeni Wafula, Hilbert Mendoza, Aisha Nalugya, David Musoke and Peter Waiswa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:5, 3 January 2021

Consistent use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) have been recommended as cost-effective interventions for malaria prevention during pregnancy in endemic areas. However, the coverage and utilization of these interventions during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is still suboptimal. This study aimed to determine the uptake of IPTp and ITNs and associated factors among women during their recent pregnancy in Eastern Uganda.

Malaria and COVID-19: unmasking their ties

December 23, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Mogahed Ismail Hassan Hussein, Ahmed Abdalazim Dafallah Albashir, Omer Ali Mohamed Ahmed Elawad and Anmar Homeida
Malaria Journal 2020 19:457, 23 December 2020

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed.

Cost-Effectiveness of PBO versus Conventional Long-Lasting Insecticidal Bed Nets in Preventing Symptomatic Malaria in Nigeria: Results of a Pragmatic Randomized Trial

December 23, 2020 - 08:31 -- Open Access
Shepard DS, Odumah JU, Awolola ST
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 21

Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been the major tool in halving malaria's burden since 2000, but pyrethroid insecticide resistance threatens their ongoing effectiveness. In 2017, the WHO concluded that long-lasting ITNs (LLINs) with a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), provided additional public health benefit over conventional (pyrethroid-only) LLINs alone in areas of moderate insecticide resistance and endorsed them as a new class of vector control products. We performed an economic appraisal of PBO nets compared with conventional LLINs in 2019 US$ from prevention and health systems perspectives (including treatment cost offsets).


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