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ITN

Evaluation of the durability of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Guatemala

May 18, 2021 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
María Eugenia Castellanos, Soledad Rodas, Norma Padilla, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:219, 14 May 2021

Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are widely used for the prevention and control of malaria. In Guatemala, since 2006, ITNs have been distributed free of charge in the highest risk malaria-endemic areas and constitute one of the primary vector control measures in the country. Despite relying on ITNs for almost 15 years, there is a lack of data to inform the timely replacement of ITNs whose effectiveness becomes diminished by routine use.

The issue is not 'compliance': exploring exposure to malaria vector bites through social dynamics in Burkina Faso

May 12, 2021 - 09:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guglielmo F, Ranson H, Sagnon N, Jones C
Reference: 
Anthropol Med. 2021 May 10:1-18

Credited with averting almost 68% of new cases between 2000 and 2015, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are one of the most efficacious malaria-prevention tools. Their effectiveness, however, depends on if and how they are used, making 'compliance' (and the social factors affecting it) a key area of interest for research on malaria transmission.

Factors associated with use of insecticide-treated net for malaria prevention in Manica District, Mozambique: a community-based cross-sectional survey

April 28, 2021 - 15:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julia Scott, Mufaro Kanyangarara, Abel Nhama, Eusebio Macete, William John Moss and Francisco Saute
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:200, 27 April 2021

Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use is crucial for preventing malaria infection. Despite significant improvements in ITN access and use over the past two decades, many malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa have not yet reached global targets for universal coverage of ITNs. To reduce the gaps in ITN use, it is important to understand the factors associated with ITN use. The goal of this analysis was to determine the factors associated with ITN use in Manica District, Mozambique.

A systematic review of factors influencing participation in two types of malaria prevention intervention in Southeast Asia

April 21, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Breagh Cheng, Saw Nay Htoo, Naw Pue Pue Mhote and Colleen M. Davison
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:195, 20 April 2021

Multi-pronged malaria elimination strategies are increasingly being considered for accelerating efforts against malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Two malaria prevention interventions used in in the region are insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and mass drug administration (MDA). Universal access to ITNs is recommended and high population coverage (e.g. above 80%) is needed during MDA initiatives to maximize the impact of these interventions. However, variability in ITN use and individual MDA participation exists. This systematic review aims to provide a summary and overview of literature discussing factors influencing uptake of these two malaria control strategies in Southeast Asian countries.

The consequences of declining population access to insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) on net use patterns and physical degradation of nets after 22 months of ownership

March 30, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zawadi M. Mboma, Charles Festo, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:171, 29 March 2021

As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability.

A retail audit of mosquito control products in Busia County, western Kenya

March 24, 2021 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Prisca A. Oria, Vincent Moshi, Julius I. Odero, Sheila Ekodir, April Monroe, Steven A. Harvey, Eric Ochomo and Danielle Piccinini Black
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:163, 23 March 2021

Approximately 70% of Kenya’s population is at risk for malaria. The core vector control methods in Kenya are insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying, with supplementary larval source management. In 2015, 21% of ITNs were accessed through the private retail sector. Despite the private sector role in supplying mosquito control products (MCPs), there is little evidence on the availability, sales trends, and consumer preferences for MCPs other than ITNs. This study, a component of a larger research programme focused on evaluating a spatial repellent intervention class for mosquito-borne disease control, addressed this evidence gap on the role of the private sector in supplying MCPs.

A socio-ecological approach to understanding the factors influencing the uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in South-Western Nigeria

March 17, 2021 - 16:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyaaba GN, Olaleye AO, Obiyan MO, Walker O, Anumba DOC
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 15;16(3):e0248412

Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) remains a key cause of poor maternal and neonatal health outcomes, particularly in the African region. Two strategies globally promoted to address MiP require pregnant women in malaria-endemic regions to sleep under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and take at least three doses of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. Yet, several multilevel factors influence the effective uptake of these strategies. This study explored the factors for the poor uptake of IPTp and use of ITNs in lower socio-economic communities in Nigeria.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl in a high malaria transmission district of Mozambique with high access to standard insecticide-treated nets

March 13, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Wagman J, Candrinho B, Muthoni R, Saifodine A, Saute F, Robertson M, Zulliger R
Reference: 
Malar J. 2021 Mar 10;20(1):143

As malaria cases increase in some of the highest burden countries, more strategic deployment of new and proven interventions must be evaluated to meet global malaria reduction goals.

Methods

The cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®300 CS) were assessed in a high transmission district (Mopeia) with high access to pyrethroid insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), compared to ITNs alone. The major mosquito vectors in the area were susceptible to primiphos-methyl, but resistant to pyrethoids. A decision analysis approach was followed to conduct deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 children under five years of age (U5) and 10,000 individuals of all ages, separately. Model parameters and distributions were based on prospectively collected cost and epidemiological data from a cluster-randomized control trial and a literature review. The primary analysis used health facility-malaria incidence, while community cohort incidence and cross-sectional prevalence rates were used in sensitivity analyses. Lifetime costs, malaria cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated to determine the incremental costs per DALY averted through IRS.

Insecticide-treated net utilization and associated factors among pregnant women and under-five children in East Belessa District, Northwest Ethiopia: using the Health Belief model

March 10, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amlaku Nigusie Yirsaw, Resom Berhe Gebremariam, Wallelign Alemnew Getnet and Muhabaw Shumye Mihret
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:130, 4 March 2021

Malaria during pregnancy and childhood is one of the major public health challenges globally. Its prevalence is huge in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan countries and Ethiopia. Insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use is one of the primary malaria preventive strategies. Previous studies did not adequately address the health belief and behaviour-related correlates of ITN using health belief model (HBM), although a number of studies were conducted in this theme. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of ITN utilization among pregnant women and under five children in east Belessa district, northwest Ethiopia, 2020.

Evaluation of the durability and use of long‐lasting insecticidal nets in Nicaragua

February 23, 2021 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emperatriz Lugo Villalta, Aida Mercedes Soto Bravo, Lucrecia Vizcaino, Nicole Dzuris, Marco Delgado, Michael Green, Stephen C. Smith, Audrey Lenhart and Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:106, 19 February 2021

Vector control for malaria prevention relies most often on the use of insecticide-treated bed net (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying. Little is known about the longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in the Americas. The physical integrity and insecticide retention of LLINs over time were monitored after a bed net distribution campaign to assess community practices around LLIN care and use in Waspam, northeastern Nicaragua.

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