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Determination of the discriminating concentration of chlorfenapyr (pyrrole) and Anopheles gambiae sensu lato susceptibility testing in preparation for distribution of Interceptor® G2 insecticide-treated nets

July 21, 2021 - 17:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richard M. Oxborough, Aklilu Seyoum, Dereje Dengela, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:316, 14 July 2021

Following agricultural use and large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), malaria vector resistance to pyrethroids is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. Interceptor® G2 is a new dual active ingredient (AI) ITN treated with alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. In anticipation of these new nets being more widely distributed, testing was conducted to develop a chlorfenapyr susceptibility bioassay protocol and gather susceptibility information.

Not Open Access | Defeating malaria in the North-East region: the forerunner for malaria elimination in India

July 14, 2021 - 10:55 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Dev V, Manguin S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jul 9:106040

India is a malaria endemic country which is targeting malaria elimination by 2027. Transmission intensities are low-to-moderate depending on the region supported by multiple disease vectors. Among these, comparatively North-East India contributes to high proportions of malaria cases annually, the majority of which are due to Plasmodium falciparum (90%). Anopheles minimus and An. baimaii (sibling species in the An. dirus complex) are widely prevalent and incriminated as vectors of malaria.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

July 14, 2021 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Steve W Lindsay, Matthew B Thomas, Immo Kleinschmidt
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health 2021, June 30, 2021

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Ownership and utilization of bed nets and reasons for use or non-use of bed nets among community members at risk of malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border

July 7, 2021 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kasama Pooseesod, Daniel M. Parker, Natthani Meemon, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Pratap Singhasivanon, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui and Suparat Phuanukoonnon
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:305, 6 July 2021

With the goal for malaria elimination in Thailand set for 2024, increased coverage and utilization of bed net, especially insecticide-treated net (ITN) or long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is a key strategy. This study aims to provide the necessary information about bed net ownership and utilization among the population at risk of malaria living along the Thai-Myanmar border in Tak province.

Malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Zambezia Province, Mozambique

July 7, 2021 - 07:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Liliana de Sousa Pinto, Jorge A. H. Arroz, Maria do Rosário O. Martins, Zulmira Hartz, Nuria Negrao, Victor Muchanga, Amadeu Cossa and Rose Zulliger
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:293, 30 June 2021

In Mozambique, socio-economic and cultural factors influence the wide adoption of disease preventive measures that are relevant for malaria control strategies to promote early recognition of disease, prompt seeking of medical care, sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and taking intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women. However, there is a critical information gap regarding previous and ongoing malaria social and behavioural change (SBC) interventions. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices of beneficiaries of SBC interventions.

Pyriproxyfen-treated bed nets reduce reproductive fitness and longevity of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae under laboratory and field conditions

June 23, 2021 - 14:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nelson Grisales, Rosemary S. Lees, Hilary Ranson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:273, 22 June 2021

The efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) and pyrethroid insecticides (PPF-ITNs) is being assessed in clinical trials to determine whether they provide greater protection from malaria than standard pyrethroid-treated ITNs in areas where mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids. Understanding the entomological mode of action of this new ITN class will aide interpretation of the results from these trials.

Association between biological sex and insecticide-treated net use among household members in ethnic minority and internally displaced populations in eastern Myanmar

June 22, 2021 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cheng B, Htoo SN, Mhote NPP, Davison CM
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 18;16(6):e0252896

Malaria prevalence in Myanmar is highest among remote and ethnic minority populations living near forest fringes along the country's international borders. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a key intervention used to prevent malaria transmission, but insufficient ITN availability and low use can hinder effectiveness. This study assessed age and sex disparities in ITN possession, access, and use among household members of ethnic minority and internally displaced populations in eastern Myanmar. Cross-sectional data from the 2013 Eastern Burma Retrospective Mortality Survey were used to describe prevalence of ITN possession, access, and use.

Maps and metrics of insecticide-treated net access, use, and nets-per-capita in Africa from 2000-2020

June 15, 2021 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Bertozzi-Villa A, Bever CA, Bhatt S, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3589

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the most widespread and impactful malaria interventions in Africa, yet a spatially-resolved time series of ITN coverage has never been published. Using data from multiple sources, we generate high-resolution maps of ITN access, use, and nets-per-capita annually from 2000 to 2020 across the 40 highest-burden African countries. Our findings support several existing hypotheses: that use is high among those with access, that nets are discarded more quickly than official policy presumes, and that effectively distributing nets grows more difficult as coverage increases.

Modeling the relationship between malaria prevalence and insecticide-treated bed nets coverage using Leroux prior Bayesian spatial generalized linear mixed models

June 9, 2021 - 07:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Okunlola OA, Oyeyemi OT, Lukman AF
Reference: 
Epidemiol Health. 2021 Jun 4:e2021041

To evaluate malaria transmission in relation to insecticide-treated nets (ITN) coverage in Nigeria.

Associating the scale-up of insecticide-treated nets and use with the decline in all-cause child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo from 2005 to 2014

June 5, 2021 - 06:23 -- Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Johanna Karemere, Ismael G. Nana, Andrew Andrada, Olivier Kakesa, Eric Mukomena Sompwe, Joris Likwela Losimba, Jacques Emina, Aboubacar Sadou, Michael Humes and Yazoumé Yé
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:241, 29 May 2021

To reduce the malaria burden and improve the socioeconomic status of its citizens, the Democratic Republic of Congo scaled up key malaria control interventions, especially insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), between 2005 and 2014. Since then, the effects of these interventions on malaria mortality and morbidity have not been assessed. This study aimed to measure the impact of the National Malaria Control Programme’s efforts and to inform future control strategies.

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