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Effects of indoor air movement and ambient temperature on mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) behaviour around bed nets: implications for malaria prevention initiatives

November 20, 2021 - 13:22 -- Open Access
James F. Sutcliffe and Shaoman Yin
Malaria Journal 2021 20:427, 30 October 2021

Until recently, relatively little research has been done on how mosquitoes behave around the occupied bed net in the indoor environment. This has been partly remedied in the last few years through laboratory and field studies, most of these using video methods and mosquito flight tracking. Despite these recent advances, understanding of the mosquito-bed net environment system, and the principles that underlie mosquito behaviour within it, is limited. This project aimed to further understand this system by studying the effects of gently moving air (such as might be introduced through room design to make the indoor environment more comfortable and conducive to ITN use) and warmer vs. cooler ambient conditions on mosquito activity around ITNs and other bed nets.

Effect of roof colour on indoor temperature and human comfort levels, with implications for malaria control: a pilot study using experimental houses in rural Gambia

November 18, 2021 - 12:00 -- Open Access
Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Ebrima Jatta, Musa Jawara, John Bradley, Margaret Pinder, Umberto D’Alessandro, Jakob Knudsen and Steve W. Lindsay
Malaria Journal 2021 20:423, 29 October 2021

In rural sub-Saharan Africa, thatch roofs are being replaced by metal roofs. Metal roofing, however, increases indoor temperatures above human comfort levels, and thus makes it more likely that residents will not use an insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) at night. Whether the colour of a metal roof affects indoor temperature and human comfort was assessed.

Evidence supporting deployment of next generation insecticide treated nets in Burkina Faso: bioassays with either chlorfenapyr or piperonyl butoxide increase mortality of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae

October 29, 2021 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Aristide S. Hien, Dieudonné D. Soma, Roch K. Dabiré, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:406, 18 October 2021

Pyrethroid resistance poses a major threat to the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Burkina Faso and throughout sub-Saharan Africa, particularly where resistance is present at high intensity. For such areas, there are alternative ITNs available, including the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-based ITNs and dual active ingredient ITNs such as Interceptor G2 (treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin). Before deploying alternative ITNs on a large scale it is crucial to characterize the resistance profiles of primary malaria vector species for evidence-based decision making.

Unlocking the human factor to increase effectiveness and sustainability of malaria vector control

October 29, 2021 - 14:12 -- Open Access
April Monroe, Sarah Moore, Bolanle Olapeju, Alice Payne Merritt and Fredros Okumu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:404, 16 October 2021

Progress in the fight against malaria has stalled in recent years, highlighting the importance of new interventions and tailored approaches. A critical factor that must be considered across contexts and interventions is human behaviour.

Not Open Access | Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets under Ghana's National Malaria Control Program: What are the correlates

October 16, 2021 - 20:17 -- NOT Open Access
Bawuah A, Ampaw S
Bawuah A, Ampaw S Trop Med Int Health. 2021 Oct 12

Ghana’s National Malaria Control Program distributes free insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) as a malaria control measure. Some households with the ITN do not use it, however. This paper explores the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of ITN ownership and use among Ghanaian families.

Assessing health system factors affecting access and delivery of IPTp-SP and ITN to pregnant women attending ANC clinics in Ghana

October 16, 2021 - 20:02 -- Open Access
De-Gaulle VF, Magnussen P, Kamgno J, Mbacham W, Orish VN, Tagbor H
BMC Health Serv Res. 2021 Oct 6;21(1):1056

Malaria interventions including use of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp-SP) and distribution of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) have been implemented through ante-natal clinic (ANC) services in Ghana. Yet, the high ANC attendance is not commensurate with the uptake of these interventions, with missed opportunities to deliver the interventions. This study sought to assess the health system factors affecting access and delivery of IPTp-SP and ITN as defined by the Ghana Malaria Policy Guideline to eligible pregnant women attending ANC clinic sessions.

Primary school students' poetic malaria messages from Jimma zone, Oromia, Ethiopia: a qualitative content analysis

September 23, 2021 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Kebede Y, Hayder A, Girma K, Abamecha F, Alemayehu G, Abebe L, Sudhakar M, Birhanu Z
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 16;21(1):1688

The engagement of schools in malaria control is an emerging strategy. Little is known about the involvement of students in the development of malaria messages. This study evaluated the message content of primary school students’ malaria poems.

From the factory to the field: considerations of product characteristics for insecticide-treated net (ITN) bioefficacy testing

September 8, 2021 - 16:25 -- Open Access
Ole Skovmand, Duoc M. Dang, Trung Q. Tran, Rune Bossellman and Sarah J. Moore
Malaria Journal 2021 20:363, 6 September 2021

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) undergo a series of tests to obtain listing by World Health Organization (WHO) Prequalification. These tests characterize the bioefficacy, physical and chemical properties of the ITN. ITN procurers assume that product specifications relate to product performance. Here, ITN test methods and their underlying assumptions are discussed from the perspective of the ITN manufacturing process and product characteristics.

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

September 1, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Lindsay SW, Thomas MB, Kleinschmidt I
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Sep;9(9):e1325-e1331

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Comparing insecticide-treated nets access-use based on universal household and population indicators vis-a-vis measures adapted to sleeping spaces in Ethiopia

September 1, 2021 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Yohannes Kebede, Morankar Sudhakar, Guda Alemayehu, Lakew Abebe and Zewdie Birhanu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:355, 28 August 2021

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) access-use has been pivotal monitoring indicator for malaria prevention and control, particularly in resource limited settings. The objective of the study was to compare ITN access-use based on universal household and population indicators and measures adapted to sleeping spaces.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, March, 2019. 762 HHs were sampled for the survey. Multi-stage followed by simple random sampling used. Monitoring and evaluation reference group’s (MERG’s) indicators were used for measuring ITN access-use. MERG’s indicators are each adapted ITN access-use to sleeping spaces. Household (ownership, saturation and sufficiency) and population access and household members’ status of last night sleeping under ITN compared based on the two models. Differences of estimates of ITN access-use based on the two methods reported as magnitude of over/under estimations, at p-value < 0.05.


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