In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been made towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to control or eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi.
Several experiments with Anopheles darlingi Root, an important malaria vector in the Amazon region, were carried out in the laboratory, depending on the large-scale production of viable larvae and adults. Certainly, improvements in rearing conditions, including dietary requirements, can strongly affect mosquito production.
Due to ethical issues associated with the use of blood for mosquito laboratory experiments, an artificial diet that supports the production of eggs and larvae is highly desirable.
Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America.
The mosquito An. darlingi larval habitats were found in different hydrological types.
The present experiments indicate that skin secretions from L. knudseni and P. vaillantii contain bioactive molecules with potent insecticide activity. The isolation and characterization of skin secretions components will provide new insights for potential insecticidal molecules.
The co-occurrence of two genetically distinct subpopulations of A. darlingi adapted to different periods of rainfall may promote a more perennial transmission of malaria throughout the year.
This study evaluated the attractiveness of individuals with vivax malaria before, during (7 days) and after treatment (14 days) with specific antimalarial drugs.
This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection.