Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary malaria prevention and control intervention in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While LLINs are expected to last at least 3 years under normal use conditions, they can lose effectiveness because they fall out of use, are discarded, repurposed, physically damaged, or lose insecticidal activity. The contributions of these different interrelated factors to durability of nets and their protection against malaria have been unclear.
Mosquitoes are the main vector of multiple diseases worldwide and transmit viral (malaria, chikungunya, encephalitis, yellow fever, as well as dengue fever), as well as bacterial diseases (tularemia). To manage the outbreak of mosquito populations, various management programs include the application of chemicals, followed by biological and genetic control.
Disease surveillance systems are essential for effective disease intervention and control by monitoring disease prevalence as time series. To evaluate the severity of an epidemic, statistical methods are widely used to forecast the trend, seasonality, and the possible number of infections of a disease. However, most statistical methods are limited in revealing the underlying dynamics of disease transmission, which may be affected by various impact factors, such as environmental, meteorological, and physiological factors. In this study, we focus on investigating malaria transmission dynamics based on time series data.
The aim of this GCE project was to develop a control method that targets the most important variables of vectorial capacity (VC) and the basic reproductive number (Ro) so malaria parasite transmission would be maximally impacted, but that did so by targeting mosquitoes through human blood meals. This would a) target all malaria vectors around a community, regardless of when and where they bite, and b) ensure that the effector molecules directly entered the midgut of mosquitoes rather than needing to be efficiently applied in the environment and then efficiently penetrate the vectors’ cuticle.