Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors in China and other southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand. Vector control is considered to be the critical measure for malaria control, while the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance caused by long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is threatening the successful control of An. sinensis. In order to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms involved and molecular basis, the principal malaria vector, An. sinensis from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, Southeast China, was investigated.
The An. sinensis populations were highly resistant to deltamethrin and exhibited decreased avoidance behaviour.
AsinOrco was characterized as a new member of the Orco ortholog subfamily.
The physical map will facilitate detailed genomic analysis of An. sinensis and contribute to understanding of the patterns and mechanisms of large-scale genome rearrangements in anopheline mosquitoes.
Diverse haplotypes of AS-VGSC are distributed in Guangxi.
Despite the importance of kdr mutations in pyrethroid resistance, the evolutionary origin of the kdr mutations is unknown. This study aims to examine the evolutionary genetics of kdr mutations in relation to spatial population genetic structure of An. sinensis.
The G119S mutation has become fixed and is widespread in An. sinensis field populations in Guangxi, China.
The survey revealed that the kdr occurrence and accumulation in the An. sinensis populations were more frequent in central China than in the other regions, suggesting that the kdr mutations may contribute significantly to the pyrethroid resistance in the mosquitoes in central China.
The resistance status of An. sinensis showed a significant decrease in the mortality rates in DDT, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin during the past ten years. Whereas obvious increase of mortality to malathion was observed throughout the assay, ranging from 47.37% to 86.62%.
Substantial spatial-temporal variation in An. Sinensis human biting rates exists in malaria epidemic-prone regions of China, with minimum temperature and enhanced vegetation index accounting for the greatest proportion of temporal variation and distance to nearest river and paddy index accounting for the greatest proportion of spatial variation amongst observed ecological drivers.