Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in this species has impeded malaria control in the region. Previous studies found that An. sinensis populations from Yunnan Province, China were highly resistant to deltamethrin and did not carry mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene that cause knockdown resistance.
Malaria is a deadly vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Although indigenous malaria has been eliminated in Guangxi of China, 473 confirmed cases were reported in the Northern region of neighbouring Vietnam in 2014.
Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors in China and other southeast Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand. Vector control is considered to be the critical measure for malaria control, while the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance caused by long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, is threatening the successful control of An. sinensis. In order to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms involved and molecular basis, the principal malaria vector, An. sinensis from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, Southeast China, was investigated.
The An. sinensis populations were highly resistant to deltamethrin and exhibited decreased avoidance behaviour.
AsinOrco was characterized as a new member of the Orco ortholog subfamily.
The physical map will facilitate detailed genomic analysis of An. sinensis and contribute to understanding of the patterns and mechanisms of large-scale genome rearrangements in anopheline mosquitoes.
Diverse haplotypes of AS-VGSC are distributed in Guangxi.
Despite the importance of kdr mutations in pyrethroid resistance, the evolutionary origin of the kdr mutations is unknown. This study aims to examine the evolutionary genetics of kdr mutations in relation to spatial population genetic structure of An. sinensis.
The G119S mutation has become fixed and is widespread in An. sinensis field populations in Guangxi, China.
The survey revealed that the kdr occurrence and accumulation in the An. sinensis populations were more frequent in central China than in the other regions, suggesting that the kdr mutations may contribute significantly to the pyrethroid resistance in the mosquitoes in central China.