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Not Open Access | Laboratory Detection of Malaria Antigens: a Strong Tool for Malaria Research, Diagnosis, and Epidemiology

June 1, 2021 - 15:30 -- NOT Open Access
Plucinski M, Aidoo M, Rogier E
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 May 26:e0025020

The identification and characterization of proteins produced during human infection with Plasmodium spp. have guided the malaria community in research, diagnosis, epidemiology, and other efforts. Recently developed methods for the detection of these proteins (antigens) in the laboratory have provided new types of data that can inform the evaluation of malaria diagnostics, epidemiological investigations, and overall malaria control strategies.

The assembly effect: the connectedness between populations is a double‐edged sword for public health interventions

April 21, 2021 - 14:42 -- Open Access
Sai Thein Than Tun, Daniel M. Parker, Ricardo Aguas and Lisa J. White
Malaria Journal 2021 20:189, 17 April 2021

Many public health interventions lead to disruption or decrease of transmission, providing a beneficial effect for people in the population regardless of whether or not they individually participate in the intervention. This protective benefit has been referred to as a herd or community effect and is dependent on sufficient population participation. In practice, public health interventions are implemented at different spatial scales (i.e., at the village, district, or provincial level). Populations, however defined (i.e., neighbourhoods, villages, districts) are frequently connected to other populations through human movement or travel, and this connectedness can influence potential herd effects.

Nextgen Vector Surveillance Tools: sensitive, specific, cost-effective and epidemiologically relevant

December 3, 2020 - 12:54 -- Open Access
Robert Farlow, Tanya L. Russell and Thomas R. Burkot
Malaria Journal 2020 19:432, 25 November 2020

Vector surveillance provides critical data for decision-making to ensure that malaria control programmes remain effective and responsive to any threats to a successful control and elimination programme. The quality and quantity of data collected is dependent on the sampling tools and laboratory techniques used which may lack the sensitivity required to collect relevant data for decision-making. Here, 40 vector control experts were interviewed to assess the benefits and limitations of the current vector surveillance tools and techniques. In addition, experts shared ideas on “blue sky” indicators which encompassed ideas for novel methods to monitor presently used indicators, or to measure novel vector behaviours not presently measured. Algorithms for deploying surveillance tools and priorities for understanding vector behaviours are also needed for collecting and interpreting vector data.

Epidemiology, evolutionary origin, and malaria-induced positive selection effects of G6PD-deficient alleles in Chinese populations

November 4, 2020 - 10:30 -- Open Access
Zheng Y, Wang J, Lin M, et al.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2020 Oct 31:e1540

Although glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common inherited disorder in the Chinese population, there is scarce evidence regarding the epidemiology, evolutionary origin, and malaria‐induced positive selection effects of G6PD‐deficient alleles in various Chinese ethnic populations.

Programmatic options for monitoring malaria in elimination settings: easy access group surveys to investigate Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology in two regions with differing endemicity in Haiti

June 26, 2020 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Druetz T, Stresman G, Ashton RA, van den Hoogen LL, Joseph V, Fayette C, Monestime F, Hamre KE, Chang MA, Lemoine JF, Drakeley C, Eisele TP
BMC Med. 2020 Jun 23; 18(1):141

As in most eliminating countries, malaria transmission is highly focal in Haiti. More granular information, including identifying asymptomatic infections, is needed to inform programmatic efforts, monitor intervention effectiveness, and identify remaining foci. Easy access group (EAG) surveys can supplement routine surveillance with more granular information on malaria in a programmatically tractable way. This study assessed how and which type of venue for EAG surveys can improve understanding malaria epidemiology in two regions with different transmission profiles.

NOT Open Access | Changes in malaria epidemiology in France and worldwide, 2000-2015

March 9, 2020 - 13:39 -- NOT Open Access
Thellier M, Simard F, Musset L, Cot M, Velut G, Kendjo E, Pradines B
Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, Volume 50, Issue 2, March 2020, Pages

In 2015, 212 million new cases of malaria were reported, causing 429,000 deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated a 41% decrease in the number of new cases worldwide between 2000 and 2015. The number of deaths from malaria fell by 62% worldwide and by 71% in Africa. In mainland France, malaria is mainly imported by travelers or migrants from endemic areas, in particular sub-Saharan Africa (95%).

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology, hematology, and unusual morphological characteristics of Plasmodium during an avian malaria outbreak in penguins in Brazil

December 3, 2019 - 15:47 -- NOT Open Access
Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels, Daniela de Angeli Dutra, Francisco C. Ferreira-Junior, Renata Hurtado, Leandro Egert, Luis Felipe S. P. Mayorga, Renata C. C. Bhering, Érika M. Braga & José Luiz Catão-Dias
Parasitology Research December 2019, Volume 118, Issue 12, pp 3497–3508

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa, and penguins are considered particularly susceptible to this disease, developing rapid outbreaks with potentially high mortality. We report on an outbreak of avian malaria in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center in Espírito Santo, southeast Brazil. In August and September 2015, a total of 89 Magellanic penguins (87 juveniles and 2 adults) received care at Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Marine Animals.

Decadal epidemiology of malaria in KwaZulu-Natal, a province in South Africa targeting elimination

November 26, 2019 - 13:28 -- Open Access
Rajendra Maharaj, Ishen Seocharan, Bheki Qwabe, Moses Mkhabela, Sunitha Kissoon and Vishan Lakan
Malaria Journal 2019 18: 368, 20 November 2019

Although malaria remains a noteworthy disease in South Africa, the provinces are at differing stages of the malaria elimination continuum. KwaZulu-Natal has consistently reported the lowest number of cases over the past 5 years and it is expected that the goal of elimination will be achieved in this province over the next few years. The study reports on few key indicators that realistically represents the provinces progress over the past decade. Local and imported morbidity and mortality is seen as the key indicator as is malaria in children under the age of five and pregnant women. The only vector control intervention in the province is indoor residual spraying (IRS) and this gives an estimate of the population protected by this intervention.

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