These results highlight the increasing spread of insecticide resistance and the challenges that control programmes face to maintain the continued effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions.
The essential oil of Z. acanthopodium and its several major compounds may have potential for use in the control of malaria mosquitoes.
The Toll pathway is a central regulator of antifungal immunity in insects.
Ivermectin was not uniformly toxic to both Anopheles species.
Around large water bodies such as reservoirs, the role of wind in the dynamics of Anopheles population, hence in malaria transmission, can be significant.
Malaria parasite ookinetes must traverse the vector mosquito midgut epithelium to transform into sporozoite-producing oocysts.
To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host's skin.
By taking the evolutionary aspect into account, the model was able to show that the long-term use of ITNs, although representing an undisputed success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality in many affected areas, is not free of undesirable side effects.
These findings demonstrate high Plasmodium infection rates among the primary malaria vectors An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, as well as in An. coustani for the first time in the region, and that non-human blood-meal sources play an important role in their ecology.
This study shows that insecticide resistance is present in potential malaria vectors in northeastern Thailand.