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anopheles mosquitoes

Exposure of Anopheles mosquitoes to trypanosomes reduces reproductive fitness and enhances susceptibility to Plasmodium

February 17, 2020 - 12:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dieme C, Zmarlak NM, Brito-Fravallo E, Travaillé C, Pain A, Cherrier F, Genève C, Calvo-Alvarez E, Riehle MM, Vernick KD, Rotureau B, Mitri C
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(2): e0008059

During a blood meal, female Anopheles mosquitoes are potentially exposed to diverse microbes in addition to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium. Human and animal African trypanosomiases are frequently co-endemic with malaria in Africa. It is not known whether exposure of Anopheles to trypanosomes influences their fitness or ability to transmit Plasmodium. Using cell and molecular biology approaches, we found that Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites survive for at least 48h after infectious blood meal in the midgut of the major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii before being cleared.

Is that a real oocyst? Insectary establishment and identification of Plasmodium falciparum oocysts in midguts of Anopheles mosquitoes fed on infected human blood in Tororo, Uganda

September 3, 2019 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, Joseph Okoth, Chiara Andolina, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:287, 27 August 2019

The human infectious reservoir for malaria consists of individuals capable of infecting mosquitoes. Oocyst prevalence and density are typical indicators of human infectivity to mosquitoes. However, identification of oocysts is challenging, particularly in areas of low malaria transmission intensity where few individuals may infect mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes tend to have few oocysts. Here, features that differentiate oocysts from other oocyst-like in mosquito midguts are explained and illustrated. In addition, the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure to perform malaria transmission experiments is described. This work may support other initiatives to set up membrane feeding infrastructure and guide oocyst detection in low transmission settings.

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Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Species abundance, composition, and nocturnal activity of female Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malaria-endemic villages of Papua New Guinea: assessment with barrier screen sampling

March 27, 2019 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John B. Keven, Michelle Katusele, Rebecca Vinit, Gussy Koimbu, Naomi Vincent, Edward K. Thomsen, Stephan Karl, Lisa J. Reimer and Edward D. Walker
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:96, 25 March 2019

The uneven distribution of Anopheles species among villages, with each site dominated by different species, even among nearby villages, emphasizes the importance of vector heterogeneity in local malaria transmission and control.

Human Direct Skin Feeding versus Membrane Feeding to Assess the Mosquitocidal Efficacy of High-Dose Ivermectin (IVERMAL Trial)

March 20, 2019 - 16:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Menno R Smit, Eric O Ochomo, Feiko O ter Kuile, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciy1063, 22 December 2018

Direct-skin-feeding and membrane-feeding on day 7 resulted in similar mosquitocidal-effects of ivermectin across a wide range of drug-concentrations, suggesting that the mosquitocidal-effects seen with membrane-feeding accurately reflect those of natural-biting.

Mosquito electrocuting traps for directly measuring biting rates and host-preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus outdoors

March 20, 2019 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Felician C. Meza, Katharina S. Kreppel, Deodatus F. Maliti, Amos T. Mlwale, Nosrat Mirzai, Gerry F. Killeen, Heather M. Ferguson and Nicodem J. Govella
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:83, 18 March 2019

METs are a sensitive, practical tool for assessing mosquito biting rates and host preferences, and represent a safer alternative to the HLC.

Dry season occurrence of Anopheles mosquitoes and implications in Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

December 4, 2018 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe Animut and Yohannes Negash
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:445, 29 November 2018

Streams were prolific breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes followed by ponds and swamps in the dry seasons.

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Assessment of the developmental success of Anopheles coluzzii larvae under different nutrient regimes: effects of diet quality, food amount and larval density

October 23, 2018 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patric Stephane Epopa, Hamidou Maiga, Abdoulaye Diabate, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:377, 22 October 2018

There is an interaction between diet type, diet concentration and larval density.

Shady business: understanding the spatial ecology of exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes

October 16, 2018 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yared Debebe, Sharon R. Hill, Habte Tekie, Rickard Ignell and Richard J. Hopkins
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:351, 5 October 2018

This study showed that exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes tend to rest in shaded areas some distance away from human habitation.

An Anopheles aquasalis GATA factor Serpent is required for immunity against Plasmodium and bacteria

October 2, 2018 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ana C. Bahia, Marina S. Kubota, Yara M. Traub-Csekö, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12(9): e0006785

Innate immunity is an ancient and conserved defense system that provides an early effective response against invaders.

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