The human infectious reservoir for malaria consists of individuals capable of infecting mosquitoes. Oocyst prevalence and density are typical indicators of human infectivity to mosquitoes. However, identification of oocysts is challenging, particularly in areas of low malaria transmission intensity where few individuals may infect mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes tend to have few oocysts. Here, features that differentiate oocysts from other oocyst-like in mosquito midguts are explained and illustrated. In addition, the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure to perform malaria transmission experiments is described. This work may support other initiatives to set up membrane feeding infrastructure and guide oocyst detection in low transmission settings.
Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.
The uneven distribution of Anopheles species among villages, with each site dominated by different species, even among nearby villages, emphasizes the importance of vector heterogeneity in local malaria transmission and control.
Direct-skin-feeding and membrane-feeding on day 7 resulted in similar mosquitocidal-effects of ivermectin across a wide range of drug-concentrations, suggesting that the mosquitocidal-effects seen with membrane-feeding accurately reflect those of natural-biting.
METs are a sensitive, practical tool for assessing mosquito biting rates and host preferences, and represent a safer alternative to the HLC.
Streams were prolific breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes followed by ponds and swamps in the dry seasons.
There is an interaction between diet type, diet concentration and larval density.
This study showed that exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes tend to rest in shaded areas some distance away from human habitation.
Innate immunity is an ancient and conserved defense system that provides an early effective response against invaders.
These results highlight the increasing spread of insecticide resistance and the challenges that control programmes face to maintain the continued effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions.