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anopheles mosquitoes

Possible influence of Plasmodium/Trypanosoma co-infections on the vectorial capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes

March 10, 2020 - 16:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fofana M, Mitri C, Diallo D, Rotureau B, Diagne CT, Gaye A, Ba Y, Dieme C, Diallo M, Dia I
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Mar 4;13(1):127

In tropical Africa, trypanosomiasis is present in endemic areas with many other diseases including malaria. Because malaria vectors become more anthropo-zoophilic under the current insecticide pressure, they may be exposed to trypanosome parasites. By collecting mosquitoes in six study sites with distinct malaria infection prevalence and blood sample from cattle, we tried to assess the influence of malaria-trypanosomiasis co-endemicity on the vectorial capacity of Anopheles.

Probe-based multiplex qPCR identifies blood-meal hosts in Anopheles mosquitoes from Papua New Guinea

March 3, 2020 - 14:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Keven JB, Artzberger G, Gillies ML, Mbewe RB, Walker ED
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Feb 28;13(1):111

Determination of blood-meal hosts in blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes is important for evaluating vectorial capacity of vector populations and assessing effectiveness of vector control measures. Sensitive molecular methods are needed to detect traces of host blood in mosquito samples, to differentiate hosts, and to detect mixed host blood meals. This paper describes a molecular probe-based quantitative PCR for identifying blood-meal hosts in Anopheles malaria vectors from Papua New Guinea.

Key to the females of Afrotropical Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

February 17, 2020 - 12:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maureen Coetzee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:70, 13 February 2020

In 1987, Gillies and Coetzee published a pictorial key for the morphological identification of adult female mosquitoes. Since then, several new species of anopheline mosquitoes have been described.

Exposure of Anopheles mosquitoes to trypanosomes reduces reproductive fitness and enhances susceptibility to Plasmodium

February 17, 2020 - 12:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dieme C, Zmarlak NM, Brito-Fravallo E, Travaillé C, Pain A, Cherrier F, Genève C, Calvo-Alvarez E, Riehle MM, Vernick KD, Rotureau B, Mitri C
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(2): e0008059

During a blood meal, female Anopheles mosquitoes are potentially exposed to diverse microbes in addition to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium. Human and animal African trypanosomiases are frequently co-endemic with malaria in Africa. It is not known whether exposure of Anopheles to trypanosomes influences their fitness or ability to transmit Plasmodium. Using cell and molecular biology approaches, we found that Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasites survive for at least 48h after infectious blood meal in the midgut of the major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii before being cleared.

Is that a real oocyst? Insectary establishment and identification of Plasmodium falciparum oocysts in midguts of Anopheles mosquitoes fed on infected human blood in Tororo, Uganda

September 3, 2019 - 15:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alex K. Musiime, Joseph Okoth, Chiara Andolina, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:287, 27 August 2019

The human infectious reservoir for malaria consists of individuals capable of infecting mosquitoes. Oocyst prevalence and density are typical indicators of human infectivity to mosquitoes. However, identification of oocysts is challenging, particularly in areas of low malaria transmission intensity where few individuals may infect mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes tend to have few oocysts. Here, features that differentiate oocysts from other oocyst-like in mosquito midguts are explained and illustrated. In addition, the establishment and maintenance of infrastructure to perform malaria transmission experiments is described. This work may support other initiatives to set up membrane feeding infrastructure and guide oocyst detection in low transmission settings.

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Diagnostic dose determination and efficacy of chlorfenapyr and clothianidin insecticides against Anopheles malaria vector populations of western Kenya

July 21, 2019 - 21:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silas Agumba, John E. Gimnig, Lilian Ogonda, Maurice Ombok, Jackline Kosgei, Stephen Munga, Benard Guyah, Seline Omondi and Eric Ochomo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:243, 17 July 2019

Malaria vector control is dependent on chemical insecticides applied to walls by indoor residual spraying or on long-lasting insecticidal nets. The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors may compromise malaria control and elimination efforts. The aim of this study was to estimate a diagnostic dose for chlorfenapyr (class: pyrrole) and clothianidin (class: neonicotinoid) and assess the baseline susceptibility of three major Anopheles malaria vectors of western Kenya to these two insecticides.

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Species abundance, composition, and nocturnal activity of female Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malaria-endemic villages of Papua New Guinea: assessment with barrier screen sampling

March 27, 2019 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John B. Keven, Michelle Katusele, Rebecca Vinit, Gussy Koimbu, Naomi Vincent, Edward K. Thomsen, Stephan Karl, Lisa J. Reimer and Edward D. Walker
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:96, 25 March 2019

The uneven distribution of Anopheles species among villages, with each site dominated by different species, even among nearby villages, emphasizes the importance of vector heterogeneity in local malaria transmission and control.

Human Direct Skin Feeding versus Membrane Feeding to Assess the Mosquitocidal Efficacy of High-Dose Ivermectin (IVERMAL Trial)

March 20, 2019 - 16:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Menno R Smit, Eric O Ochomo, Feiko O ter Kuile, et al.
Reference: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciy1063, 22 December 2018

Direct-skin-feeding and membrane-feeding on day 7 resulted in similar mosquitocidal-effects of ivermectin across a wide range of drug-concentrations, suggesting that the mosquitocidal-effects seen with membrane-feeding accurately reflect those of natural-biting.

Mosquito electrocuting traps for directly measuring biting rates and host-preferences of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus outdoors

March 20, 2019 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Felician C. Meza, Katharina S. Kreppel, Deodatus F. Maliti, Amos T. Mlwale, Nosrat Mirzai, Gerry F. Killeen, Heather M. Ferguson and Nicodem J. Govella
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:83, 18 March 2019

METs are a sensitive, practical tool for assessing mosquito biting rates and host preferences, and represent a safer alternative to the HLC.

Dry season occurrence of Anopheles mosquitoes and implications in Jabi Tehnan District, West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

December 4, 2018 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abebe Animut and Yohannes Negash
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2018 17:445, 29 November 2018

Streams were prolific breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes followed by ponds and swamps in the dry seasons.

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