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anopheles mosquitoes

Not Open Access | The best sugar in town for malaria transmission

July 20, 2021 - 11:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ernest M, Alves E Silva TL, Vega-Rodríguez J
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Jul 15:S1471-4922(21)00163-X

Anopheles mosquitoes feed on plant nectars as their main source of sugar. Wang et al. show that Asaia bacteria proliferate in the midgut of mosquitoes that feed on glucose or trehalose.

Improvement of water quality for mass anopheline rearing: evaluation of the impact of ammonia-capturing zeolite on larval development and adult phenotypic quality

May 25, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Akpodiete NO, Tripet F
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 20;14(1):268

Malaria vector control approaches that rely on mosquito releases such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) and suppression or replacement strategies relying on genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) depend on effective mass production of Anopheles mosquitoes. Anophelines typically require relatively clean larval rearing water, and water management techniques that minimise toxic ammonia are key to achieving optimal rearing conditions in small and large rearing facilities. Zeolites are extensively used in closed-system fish aquaculture to improve water quality and reduce water consumption, thanks to their selective adsorption of ammonia and toxic heavy metals. The many advantages of zeolites include low cost, abundance in many parts of the world and environmental friendliness. However, so far, their potential benefit for mosquito rearing has not been evaluated.

Molecular diagnosis and therapy for Plasmodium ovale infection of a returned traveler from East Africa

May 12, 2021 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tseng YC, Chang YC, Lee C, Hsu SF, Chang PC, Hsu JJ, Lin PB, Lu MC, Tien N, Hsiao CT
Reference: 
J Formos Med Assoc. 2021 May 6:S0929-6646(21)00170-4

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that are mainly transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The average annual number of malaria cases was less than ten in Taiwan in the last five years.

Plasmodium falciparum LipB mutants display altered redox and carbon metabolism in asexual stages and cannot complete sporogony in Anopheles mosquitoes

May 5, 2021 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Biddau M, Santha Kumar TR, Sheiner L, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2021 May;51(6):441-453

Malaria is still one of the most important global infectious diseases. Emergence of drug resistance and a shortage of new efficient antimalarials continue to hamper a malaria eradication agenda. Malaria parasites are highly sensitive to changes in the redox environment. Understanding the mechanisms regulating parasite redox could contribute to the design of new drugs.

NOT Open Access | Olfaction in Anopheles mosquitoes

April 28, 2021 - 13:57 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Konopka JK, Task D, Afify A, Raji J, Deibel K, Maguire S, Lawrence R, Potter CJ
Reference: 
Chem Senses. 2021 Apr 22:bjab021

As vectors for disease, mosquitoes are a global threat to human health. The Anopheles mosquito is the deadliest mosquito species as the insect vector for the malaria-causing parasite, which kills hundreds of thousands every year.

NOT Open Access | Species Composition, Parous Rate, and Infection Rate of Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia

April 7, 2021 - 12:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Getaneh A, Yimer M, Alemu M, Dejazmach Z, Alehegn M, Tegegne B
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Apr 3:tjab034

Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors of malaria. There is little information on the current entomological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevailing species composition, parous rate, and infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Bahir Dar city administration.

Ultra-conserved sequences in the genomes of highly diverse Anopheles mosquitoes, with implications for malaria vector control

March 18, 2021 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
O'Loughlin SM, Forster AJ, Fuchs S, Dottorini T, Nolan T, Crisanti A, Burt A
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2021 Mar 17:jkab086

DNA sequences that are exactly conserved over long evolutionary time scales have been observed in a variety of taxa. Such sequences are likely under strong functional constraint and they have been useful in the field of comparative genomics for identifying genome regions with regulatory function. A potential new application for these ultra-conserved elements has emerged in the development of gene drives to control mosquito populations. Many gene drives work by recognising and inserting at a specific target sequence in the genome, often imposing a reproductive load as a consequence.

NOT Open Access | Patterns of human exposure to early-evening and outdoor biting mosquitoes and residual malaria transmission in Ethiopia

January 27, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Degefa T, Githeko AK, Lee MC, Yan G, Yewhalaw D
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 21:105837

Ethiopia has shown a notable progress in reducing malaria burden over the past decade, mainly due to the scaleup of vector control interventions such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Based on the progress, the country has set goals to eliminate malaria by 2030. However, residual malaria transmission due to early-evening and outdoor biting vectors could pose a challenge to malaria elimination efforts. This study assessed vector behavior, patterns of human exposure to vector bites and residual malaria transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected monthly from January to December 2018 using human landing catches (HLCs), human-baited double net traps, CDC light traps and pyrethrum spray catches.

Zonal human hepatocytes are differentially permissive to Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites

January 20, 2021 - 06:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yang ASP, van Waardenburg YM, van de Vegte-Bolmer M, van Gemert GA, Graumans W, de Wilt JHW, Sauerwein RW
Reference: 
EMBO J. 2021 Jan 18:e106583

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) is a major cause of human malaria and is transmitted by infected Anopheles mosquitoes. The initial asymptomatic infection is characterized by parasite invasion of hepatocytes, followed by massive replication generating schizonts with blood-infective merozoites. Hepatocytes can be categorized by their zonal location and metabolic functions within a liver lobule. To understand specific host conditions that affect infectivity, we studied Pf parasite liver stage development in relation to the metabolic heterogeneity of fresh human hepatocytes.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

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