Malaria control relies mainlyon insecticide-based tools. However, the effectiveness of these tools is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in malaria vectors, highlighting the need for alternative control approaches. The endosymbiont Asaia has emerged as a promising candidate for paratransgenic control of malaria, but its biology and genetics still need to be further analyzed across Africa. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Asaia and its maternal transmission in the natural population of Anopheles mosquitoes in Cameroon.
The ability to culture Plasmodium falciparum continuously in vitro has enabled stable access to asexual and sexual parasites for malaria research. The portfolio of isolates has remained limited and research is still largely based on NF54 and its derived clone 3D7. Since 1978, isolates were collected and cryopreserved at Radboudumc from patients presenting at the hospital. Here, procedures are described for culture adaptation of asexual parasites, cloning and production of sexual stage parasites responsible for transmission (gametocytes) and production of oocysts in Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed to identify new culture-adapted transmissible P. falciparum isolates, originating from distinct geographical locations.
Female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria sporozoites to humans in the context of a blood meal. In malaria-endemic areas, most of the ensuing infections are asymptomatic. Some, however, progress to an uncomplicated illness (fever, headache, body aches, and pains).
Anopheles mosquitoes feed on plant nectars as their main source of sugar. Wang et al. show that Asaia bacteria proliferate in the midgut of mosquitoes that feed on glucose or trehalose.
Malaria vector control approaches that rely on mosquito releases such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) and suppression or replacement strategies relying on genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) depend on effective mass production of Anopheles mosquitoes. Anophelines typically require relatively clean larval rearing water, and water management techniques that minimise toxic ammonia are key to achieving optimal rearing conditions in small and large rearing facilities. Zeolites are extensively used in closed-system fish aquaculture to improve water quality and reduce water consumption, thanks to their selective adsorption of ammonia and toxic heavy metals. The many advantages of zeolites include low cost, abundance in many parts of the world and environmental friendliness. However, so far, their potential benefit for mosquito rearing has not been evaluated.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that are mainly transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The average annual number of malaria cases was less than ten in Taiwan in the last five years.
Malaria is still one of the most important global infectious diseases. Emergence of drug resistance and a shortage of new efficient antimalarials continue to hamper a malaria eradication agenda. Malaria parasites are highly sensitive to changes in the redox environment. Understanding the mechanisms regulating parasite redox could contribute to the design of new drugs.
As vectors for disease, mosquitoes are a global threat to human health. The Anopheles mosquito is the deadliest mosquito species as the insect vector for the malaria-causing parasite, which kills hundreds of thousands every year.
Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors of malaria. There is little information on the current entomological aspects of Anopheles mosquitoes in Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevailing species composition, parous rate, and infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Bahir Dar city administration.
DNA sequences that are exactly conserved over long evolutionary time scales have been observed in a variety of taxa. Such sequences are likely under strong functional constraint and they have been useful in the field of comparative genomics for identifying genome regions with regulatory function. A potential new application for these ultra-conserved elements has emerged in the development of gene drives to control mosquito populations. Many gene drives work by recognising and inserting at a specific target sequence in the genome, often imposing a reproductive load as a consequence.